Gavan Knox is a professional Scientist / teacher / university researcher with 35 years experience. He is qualified with a Bachelor of Physics, Engineering, Education (chemistry) and is currently studying to complete his Masters in Chemical engineering (metallurgy). Hydrogen Fuel Systems Pty Ltd specializes in building alternative energy systems for use in internal combustion engines to improve the Fuel efficiency, Power output and Torque of an engine as well as reducing the toxic polluting gases produced by internal combustion engines.
1-This investigation establishes that hydrogen can be utilized in compression ignition engines operating them on dual-fuel principle.
2-Such operation improves thermal efficiency, makes the engine run with very lean equivalence ratios, which means very low engine emissions.
3-This operation results in lower exhaust gas temperatures leading to longer live of components such as exhaust valves.
4-Increasing hydrogen volumetric fractions accompanied with injection timing retarding, due to increasing in the flame velocity till the air is completely utilized. Further increase in HVF (Hydrogen Fraction) causes knock to appear, and OIT (optimum injection timing) must be retarded sharply, which reduce the bp resulted from engine. Introducing Hydrogen increases the CR (compression ratio) significantly and therefore increases the Brake Horse Power for the Diesel engine (http://www.ijerd.com/paper/vol9-issue3/A09030109.pdf).
5-Knocking in the engine limits the proportion of energy input that can be supplied through hydrogen. The occurrence of knock in this type of hydrogen addition operation may be due to hydrogen rapid rate of pressure rise or flaming particle that is left behind due to bad engine scavenging.
6-When engine was run with hydrogen addition, bp was improved. The effect of hydrogen addition on the power enhancement was not quantitatively but qualitatively by the means of combustion improvement
Using hydrogen injection into a diesel, petrol or LPG fuelled engine results in significant fuel savings, by:
1. Allowing a leaner air/fuel mixture.
2. By more thoroughly burning all the fuel introduced into the engine.
3. By increasing the power output of the engine, increasing the efficiency of the engine thereby reducing the “throttle “ setting required to achieve the engine speed and vehicle speed
4. Ensuring the valves, piston head and cylinder head is free of carbon buildups , which would otherwise interfere with the air/fuel flow in the cylinder and reduce engine efficiency.
5. Hydrogen gas significantly increases the rate of combustion of the fuel ( due to the incredibly fast flame speed which is 600 times that of diesel and petrol). Therefore, the entire fuel charge is burnt at or close to top dead centre on the power stroke. It is pointless having fuel burn at the bottom or near the bottom of the expansion/ power stroke of an engine. Consequently more power is delivered by the engine having the fuel charge burn at TDC (Top Dead Centre) and allowing the expanding gasses to deliver power more efficiently to the engine.
6. Hydrogen also allows increased compression ratio because of the ability of hydrogen rich gas to prevent knock (high octane).
7. The brake thermal efficiency is greatly improved with the addition of hydrogen, especially at lean conditions.
Using Hydrogen injection into the engine the fuel is “ flashed” at a much higher temperature allowing the fuel to burn more completely. A leaner fuel mix ensures a more complete combustion process resulting in less unburnt or partly burnt fuel/ hydrocarbons being passed out the exhaust.
By having a more thorough combustion process there is less wasted fuel producing buildups / coating on the valves, pistons and cylinder heads. The contaminants of incomplete combustion mean the lubrication fluids remain cleaner and in better condition for engine lubrication.
Gen 20 systems mounted in steel enclosures 32cm x 38cm x 29 cm- ideal engines 8 liter and above
What Drives Us
As an educator / teacher / research Scientist for the past 35 years I have attained knowledge which I use to develop a alternative fuel system to help reduce the environmental stress on our fragile planet. As a parent of 6 children and in particular two young girls, I put my extensive education to use into protecting the environment my young family will inherit. I see that reducing pollution due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels is a major risk to my childrens planet and lifestyle. This pollution problem can be partially rectified by introducing Hydrogen fuel technology. Finally I wish to protect my family, as any father does, and see that my HFS systems is internationally accepted and used. HFS systems will provide the people of the world with
a) a better fuel supply option ,
b) a safer option,
c) a cleaner option and
d) a cheaper option than indiscriminately burning fossil fuels…. Gavan Knox
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 P. S. Ranjit & M. Saxena, “A Review on Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Compression Ignition Engines”, International J of Science Technology & Management, III, (2), 2012.
 N. Saravanan, G. Nagarajan, “Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Port Fuel Injection in Direct Injection Diesel Engine”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, XXXII, pp: 4071-4080, 2007.
 B. R. Prasath, E. Leelakrishnan, N. Lokesh, H. Suriyan, E. G. Prakash & K. O. M. Ahmed, “Hydrogen Operated Internal Combustion Engines-A New Generation Fuel”, International J of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, II, (4), pp: 52-57, 2012.
 G. Pullagura, K. R. Kumar, P. C. Verma, A. Jaiswal, R. Prakash & S. Murugan, “Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Enrichment on Performance and Emission Behavior of Compression Ignition Engine”, International J of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), IV, (3), pp: 1223-1232, 2012.
 S. J. Lee & E. S. Kim, “Combustion Characteristic of Intake Port Injection Type Hydrogen Fueled Engine”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, XX, 1995.
 J. D. Naber & D. L. Siebers, “Hydrogen Combustion under Diesel Engine Conditions”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, XXIII, 1998.
 D. F. Maki & P. Prabhakaran, “An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions of a Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Hydrogen-Diesel Blends”, World Renewable Energy Congress, Sweden, 2011.
 M. Masood, S. N. Mehdi & P. R. Reddy, “Experimental Investigation on a Hydrogen – Diesel Duel Fuel Engine at Different Compression Ratios”, Transactions of ASME, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, CXXIX, pp: 572-578, 2007.
 G. A. Karim, “Knock Characteristics of Dual-Fuel Engines Fueled with Hydrogen”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, XX, 1995.
H. A. K. Shahad & N. Abul Hadi, “Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Blending on the Concentration of Pollutants Emitted from a Four Stroke Diesel Engine”, The 7th Jordanian International Mechanical Engineering Conference (JIMEC’7), Amman, Jordan, 2010.
M. Milen & B. Kiril, “Investigation of the Effects of Hydrogen Addition on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engine”, Fisita World Automotive Congress, Spain, 2004.
P. K. Bose, R. Banerjee & M. Deb, “Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion on the Performance and Combustion Parameters of a Dual Fuelled Diesel Engine”, International J of Energy and Environment, IV, (3), pp: 497-510, 2013.
E. L. Keating, “Applied combustion”, 2nd edition, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 2007.
S. M. Abdul Haleem, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Engine Performance and Emissions of a Four Strokes Spark Ignition Engine Operated with Hydrogen Blended Gasoline”, Ph D thesis, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq, 2007.
K. S. Varde & G. A. Frame, “Hydrogen Aspiration in a Direct Injection Type Diesel Engine – it’s Effect on Smoke and other Engine Performance Parameters”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, VIII, pp: 549-555, 1983.
S. Szwaja & K. G. Rogalinski, “Hydrogen Combustion in a Compression Ignition Diesel Engine”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, III, (4), pp: 4413–4421, 2009.
G. K. Lilik, H. Zhang, J. M. Herreros, D. C. Haworth & A. L. Boehman, “Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion”, International J of Hydrogen Energy, XXXV, pp: 4382–4398, 2010.
B. K. Debnath, U. K. Saha & N. Sahoo, “Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Quantity Variation on Brake Thermal Efficiency of a Dual Fuelled Diesel Engine”, Journal of Power Technologies, XCII, (1), pp: 55–67, 2012.