Operational temperature hydrogen fuel system – commonly known as HHO systems

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Operational temperature hydrogen fuel system – commonly known as HHO systems

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture produced at Lower temperatures has a higher concentration  than the same gas at higher temperature as is shown by the following formula .

PV =nRT.  At one atmosphere pressure the volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature (in degrees Kelvin)

  1. A common misconception is that water vapour in the air/ fuel intake will reduce  fuel efficiency …. This belief is wrong as small amounts of water vapour increases the octane rating of fuel and increases power and economy ( See Enola Gay case 1945, Harrier jump jets)
  2. It is proven that cooler temperatures in the electrolysis cell increase the lifespan of electrodes by reducing Corrosion.
  3. Increasing the temperature of an electrolysis cell reduces the internal resistance allowing more current to flow and overloading the vehicle/ engine electrical supply. Increasing the temperature of the electrical / electronic Power supply can lead  to “Thermal Runaway” and ultimate failure of the electronic power control circuitry
  4. To prevent the situation of heat from the electrolysis system, Excessive overvoltage is avoided. Applied voltage is 13.8 volts from your battery and 13.2 volts is used by the oxidation / reduction process within the cells ( 2.2 volts per cell – 6 ells) .  Overvoltage does increase the current flow , without increasing hydrogen gas production.  Extra voltage ( ENERGY / AMP OF CURRENT FLOW) is converted directly into heat  , making the water boil and electrodes corrode.
  5. Using a MOSFET current control circuit as shown in web.mit .www.  search SP07-L25 ,current control circuits are designed that do not use up available voltage and energy , and yet have full control of the current source…. Ie thermal runaway is never an issue.
  6. electronics-tutorials.ws search MOSFET’s   – an excellent site on MOSFET theory in DC switching circuits.
  7. See also Darlington transistrors ( 2 npn transiators)  as a means of power current control circuit

PWM power supply Explained

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PWM power supply explained Contrary to popular belief on places like “ Green Source” the real purpose of a PWM controller is reduce the back emf of the load and provide more usable energy to the electrolysis reaction. All too often these so called experts with little or no traditional scientific training regurgitate half truths and pure ignorance to pretend to know what they are talking about and win the confidence of the scientifically untrained masses A PWM power supply is originally designed as a motor speed control ,which it is well designed for and then put to use as an electrolysis control unit as it is able to fix the current at a given value. This is ideal to lock in the current drawn , and reduce an excessive load on the vehicle electrical system….. but …. A PWM unit also is designed to reduce back voltage as produced by a n inductive load of a motor and produce a more efficient series of square waves to minimize energy wastage. However an electrolysis system does not have an inductive load and has no back voltage to overcome and so the extra circuitry of the PWM and square wave production is simply a waste of electronics , a waste of energy and a waste of money Ideally the best circuit to use In this event is a MOSFET circuit which allows the current to be controlled and locked at a predetermined values and not waste energy or your money on expensive circuitry that dissipates energy as heat to the expense of producing hydrogen There are many MOSFET power control circuits that Are shown on youtube and google , that are a fraction the price of the expensive commercially available circuits such as the MXA 067, that can be easily built and used to control the HHO systems In Fact H.F.S has developed a very efficient and simple circuit to control the Systems which we manufacture. Some people will tell you they are trying to make the High frequency PWM produce resonance within the electrolysis cell.. These PWM units oscillate at 100 to 5000 hertz… which is a far cry from the required resonant frequency of several billion hertz. Moral to the story ,,, dont waste your money .

PWMs explained

PWM power supply explained Contrary to popular belief on places like “ Green Source” the real purpose of a PWM controller is reduce the back emf of the load and provide more usable energy to the electrolysis reaction. All too often these so called experts with little or no traditional scientific training regurgitate half truths and pure ignorance to pretend to know what they are talking about and win the confidence of the scientifically untrained masses A PWM power supply is originally designed as a motor speed control ,which it is well designed for and then put to use as an electrolysis control unit as it is able to fix the current at a given value. This is ideal to lock in the current drawn , and reduce an excessive load on the vehicle electrical system….. but …. A PWM unit also is designed to reduce back voltage as produced by a n inductive load of a motor and produce a more efficient series of square waves to minimize energy wastage. However an electrolysis system does not have an inductive load and has no back voltage to overcome and so the extra circuitry of the PWM and square wave production is simply a waste of electronics , a waste of energy and a waste of money Ideally the best circuit to use In this event is a MOSFET circuit which allows the current to be controlled and locked at a predetermined values and not waste energy or your money on expensive circuitry that dissipates energy as heat to the expense of producing hydrogen There are many MOSFET power control circuits that Are shown on youtube and google , that are a fraction the price of the expensive commercially available circuits such as the MXA 067, that can be easily built and used to control the HHO systems In Fact H.F.S has developed a very efficient and simple circuit to control the Systems which we manufacture. Some people will tell you they are trying to make the High frequency PWM produce resonance within the electrolysis cell.. These PWM units oscillate at 100 to 5000 hertz… which is a far cry from the required resonant frequency of several billion hertz. Moral to the story ,,, dont waste your money .

Hydrogen Generator System Battery condition requirements

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Hydrogen Generator System Battery condition     Battery Power supply for Hydrogen on Demand systems – Crucial points to consider

 

Essential information on car batteries

Hydrogen generator system battery condition is crucial for effective gas production.  It is essential that the battery of a vehicle in which a HHO system is installed , is in good condition . As a car battery ages , the internal resistance of the battery also increases . This increasing internal resistance reduces the percentage of the available battery energy that can be used for electrolysis Internal resistance increases with age and as the battery’s internal chemical energy is used up.

The value for a new lead-acid car battery is of the order of 0.02 ohm . ( not 0.02 watt) In this case when a current of 18 amp is being used by the car to run the electrolysis unit , then the voltage drop within the 12 volt battery is 18 x 0.02 = 0.36 volt

This means that the available voltage for the HHO system has dropped from 12 volt to 11.74 volts.

This voltage drop is not significant and a 5 cell unit can easily operate —–( each cell using approx. 2.2 volts for the Hydrogen redox reaction) – 5 x 2.2 volts = 11 volts , and the available voltage is 11.74 volt. However in the case of a damaged battery , an old battery , or a battery close to the end of its lifespan, the internal resistance of the battery itself will increase significantly . Eg……… if the internal resistance rises from 0.01 ohm to 0.2 ohm the voltage drop within the battery itself when 18 amp of current is flowing = 0.2 x 18 = 3.6 volts

This means that although the battery is still providing 18 amp of current ………. ( which is achieved by using a stronger electrolyte solution in the HHO cells)…………….. , the available voltage to power the cells has dropped from 12 volt to 8.4 volt. ( you need at least 11 volts for 5 cells)

At this voltage the cell production is significantly reduced as there is insufficient voltage to support the Redox reaction to produce Hydrogen in the cells. So where is the extra energy gone?……………… Into heat within the battery and system Conclusion = Make sure your battery and alternator are in good condition and avoid any avoidable line losses which can rob your HHO system of the energy needed to make Hydrogen from water using electrolysis.

Theory For an electrical current to flow in a conductor, there must be a driving force to move the electrons. This driving force is called electromotive force (meaning electron-motion-force) across the ends of the conductor.

Electromotive force may arise from some external device which transforms some other form of energy into electrical energy. A battery is such a device. It is the chemicals within the battery that produces the source of electromotive force. Some other sources of EMF are generators, photocells and solar cells.

The electromotive force of a battery E is the work that is needed to move a charge Q through it. The ratio of the amount of work in Joules to Q in Coulombs is called the VOLT after the Italian physicist Count Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Thus 1V = 1J/1C. An electrical current is the flow of electric charge. The rate of flow of charge of one Coulomb per second is called the AMPERE after the French physicist Andre Ampere (1775-1836). Thus 1A = 1C/1s.

Whenever a current flows in a conductor, a potential difference is developed across it.

The relation between potential difference in volts to the current in amperes was first investigated by the German physicist Georg Ohm (1787-1854).He found that the ratio of the potential difference across a conductor to the current through it is a property of the conductor which we call resistance. The relation V = I x R is known as Ohm’s Law .

The unit of resistance is the OHM. Every source of electromotive force has some resistance within it which limits the amount of current that can be drawn from it. This is called its internal resistance . Values of internal resistance vary from 1/2 to 1 W for D and C cells to several Ws for AAA cells. Internal resistance increases with age and also as the battery’s energy is used up.

The value for a new leadacid car battery is of the order of 0.02W . When a battery is being discharged, part of the electrical energy is converted into heat within the internal resistance. The potential difference across the battery V is then less than the emf of the battery E by an amount equal to the potential difference across the internal resistance, Ir, or V = E – Ir. I is the current drawn from the battery and r is its internal resistance.

If we multiply this relation by It (the product of the current and time t), the quantity VIt represents the electrical energy delivered by the battery, EIt represents the chemical energy used up in the battery, and I2 rt represents the heat energy generated within the battery. The maximum current that may be drawn from a battery occurs when V = 0 in the above relations, or Imax=E/r. This is called the short-circuit current. It is essentially the CCA (cold cranking amperes) rating for car batteries.

The value of Imax for a 12V car battery of internal resistance 0.02 ohms is 600A and for a C or D-cell battery of internal resistance 1/2 ohm, about 3A. The 9V radio batteries consist of 6 small 1.5V cells each of about 1.5 ohms internal resistance, in series. The short circuit current of these batteries is then about 1 A. The power delivered by a battery to an external resistor R is equal to I2 R or {E/(R+r)}2 R .

By differential calculus, we obtain the result that the maximum power delivered by a battery occurs when R = r . The value of maximum power output of a battery is then is given by Pmax = E2 /4r The maximum power output of a battery is inversely proportional to its internal resistance. The smaller the internal resistance, the large is the maximum available power. The specific maximum power is the maximum power (in W) divided by the mass of the battery (in kg or g).

The capacity of a battery is the product of the current that may be drawn from it and the time for it to be exhausted. For example, a 60A.hr car battery may deliver a current of 5A for 12 hours, or 120A for 30 minutes. The product EIt is the energy of the battery. It is equal to the capacity of thr battery times its emf. The energy density of a battery is equal to EIt/volume. The purpose of this laboratory exercise to measure the emf and internal resistance of a variety of batteries and then to determine several important quantites such as maximum power, specific maximum power, energy and energy density of them. Consider a series circuit consisting of a battery of electromotive force E and internal resistance r connected to a meter of resistance rm and a resistor R as shown below.

The current flowing in the series circuit is given by Ohm’s Law, I = E/(R + r + rm), and by rearranging, R = E(1/I) – (rm + r) Thus, a graph of R (on the y-axis) versus 1/I (on the x-axis) should be linear with a slope equal to the EMF of the battery E and whose negative intercept on the R axis gives the value rm + r. If a value of the internal resistance of the ammeter rm is known (typically 0.5 to 0.5 W), a value of the internal resistance of the battery r may be determined.

Alternatively we may rewrite the above equation as RI = E – (r + rm)I, so that a graph of RI (on the y-axis) versus I (on the x-axis) should be linear with a slope equal to r + rm and intercept on the y-axis equal to E.

Battery Power supply for Hydrogen on Demand systems

Battery operation principles used to power hydrogen fuel systems

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Battery operation principles used to power hydrogen fuel systems.   The Most Important Facts (And Myths) About Your Car Battery

 

We debunk some myths and add tips to taking car of this hugely important part in your car.

Even if you’re driving a gas guzzling SUV, electricity remains crucial to driving a car. Thanks to modern-day electric batteries, drivers no longer have to turn an engine over by hand. It now all happens with the turn of a key or a press of a button.

But beyond that initial ignition, the battery continues playing a vital role in all of your vehicle’s electric systems, but some myths have circulated about this electric heart pulsating in all our autos. Here’s a thorough examination of those myths and some some cold, hard facts to replace them.

BATTERY LIFE (AND DEATH)

Getty Dave King

A car battery should last about six years, but like most car parts, that all depends on how you treat it. Multiple discharge/recharge cycles shorten any battery’s life and using electronics in the car while the engine is the quickest route to a dead battery. Of course, a battery can maintain a charge while the engine is on, but once it’s off electronics draw directly from the battery.

To avoid this recurring auto nightmare, always turn the headlights and interior lights off when you’re done driving. Remember that leaving electronics like GPS or cell phones plugged into a car charger can drain the battery, too.

No matter how well you take care of it, eventually your battery will die and you’ll need a replacement. Failing batteries usually display obvious symptoms that let you know it’s on its way out. Slow cranking on startup indicates that the battery may not be able to provide enough power to fire up the engine, and an illuminated Battery Warning Light on the dashboard is clear indicator it needs attention. If vehicle electronics like remote locks or interior lights randomly stop working, a dying or dead battery could be why.

Also, batteries—alive or dead—are full of chemicals, so do nature a favor and dispose of dead ones properly. Don’t just toss it in the trash because chances are your local mobile mechanic or auto supply store can recycle it for you.

WEATHER MATTERS

Getty Spencer Platt

Ambient temperature has a significant impact on battery life and performance. Most car batteries use a liquid electrolyte solution to hold a charge, which is affected by hot or cold weather. While it takes extremely low temperatures to freeze a battery, cold reduces the solution’s ability to transfer full power (which is why it can be hard to start a car in winter). There’s a misconception that buying a battery with a higher CCA (cold cranking amp) rating will remedy this, but since vehicle computers regulate the amperage required for startup, it actually won’t make any difference. Use a battery heater instead – it’s like a toasty jacket that will keep your battery warm and reliable all winter.

On the flip side, hot weather can cause the battery solution to evaporate, limiting its ability to hold a charge. You may notice a rotten egg smell from the sulfur in the solution if this happens. A common myth is that you can simply refill it with tap water to make up for evaporation, but tap water contains minerals and impurities that can damage battery cells. Use deionized or demineralized water instead, but if you have to do this it’s probably a sign that you need a replacement soon. Keeping your car garaged helps the battery cope with temperature extremes so it lasts longer and works more reliably.

JUMPSTARTING MADE EASY

Almost every driver has to deal with a dead battery, and jumpstarting is usually the easiest way to get it recharged. It’s a relatively straightforward process, but it’s still important to follow these steps exactly.

Here’s how it works. First, to jumpstart a car, you will need:

  • A set of jumper cables
  • Another vehicle with a fully charged battery of the same voltage of the car being jumped
  • Rubber work gloves
  • Safety goggles

Before jump-starting your car, read the owner’s manual. The process is similar for most cars, but there may be special considerations for your specific vehicle.

  1. Park the vehicles close enough that the jumper cables reach each battery.
  2. Make sure each vehicle is in Park or Neutral.
  3. Turn off the vehicle with the good battery.
  4. Turn off or unplug any electronics, including headlights, hazard lights, radios, or cell phone chargers in each vehicle.
  5. Open the hood of each vehicle and put on the work gloves and safety goggles.
  6. Connect one end of the red (positive) jumper cable to the red positive (+) post of the dead battery.
  7. Connect the other end of the red (positive) jumper cable to the red repositive (+) post of the charged battery.
  8. Connect one end of the black (negative) jumper cable to the black negative (-) post of the charged battery.
  9. Connect the other end of the black (negative) jumper cable to an unpainted metal part in the dead car, as far from the battery as the cable will reach. This grounds the circuit and helps prevent sparking.
  10. Now you’re ready to actually jumpstart the car. Turn on the car with the fully charged battery and let it idle for roughly five to 10 minutes. Revving the engine won’t help: jumpstarting draws amps from the good battery, which is unaffected by engine power.
  11. Turn off the engine and remove the cables in reverse order, being careful to not let the clamps touch any metal surface.
  12. Start the car with the dead battery. If it starts, let it idle for at least 20 minutes, or go on a five-mile drive so the battery can recharge. If it still won’t start, repeat the process.

Jumpstarting is one way to get your car started again, but remember that every time a battery is fully discharged its life becomes shorter. If nothing else, the alternator will have to work harder to recharge that drained battery, which reduces fuel economy.

IT’S NOT ALWAYS THE BATTERY

Getty Westend61

If your car won’t start, a dead battery is the likely culprit. However, there are numerous components that can cause similar symptoms. A faulty starter motor will make a click when you turn the key that sounds similar to a dead battery. If the alternator fails, the battery won’t recharge when the engine is on, leading to a no-start condition. Clogged fuel injectors or worn-out spark plugs can be a problem, and corrosion on the battery terminals, which prevents the flow of electricity, is common too. Fortunately, it’s easy to clean with a wire brush or steel wool.

With the popularity of all-electric vehicles soaring, there’s a good chance your next car will be powered entirely by batteries. But until then, follow these steps to keep your current gas guzzler in shape so that you never have to break out the jumper cables.

 

The Most Important Facts about batteries

Renewable hydrogen could fuel Australia

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Renewable hydrogen could fuel Australia

How does Hydrogen gas produce a cleaner engine

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How does Hydrogen gas produce a cleaner engine

What size Hydrogen generator system do I need

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What size Hydrogen generator system do I need

What size Hydrogen generator system do I need?

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What size system do I need

The price structure sheet  below shows the vehicle engine capacity and appropriate system to match.

Basically any engine has a Hydrogen stoichiometric ratio of 12.5 % … that is the optimum volume of required hydrogen is 12.5% or 1/8th  the engine capacity  , measured in litres per  minute

A Gen 10 system has a total electrode area that suits the engine to 5 litre capacity

A Gen 15 system has a total electrode area that suits the engine to 8 litre capacity

A Gen 20 system has a total electrode area that suits the engine to 8  litre capacity and can be connected in series to suit engines to 20 litre capacity

Gen 15 and Gen 10 systems can also be connected in series if required , however the Gen 20 is specially designed  for  series / multiple unit connections for larger engines

All systems can be powered by 12 volt or 24 volt supply .  24 Volt supplies naturally have greater output.  Some clients have opted to use a 12 Volt / 24 Volt DC voltage inverter for their systems .

Turbo powered engines require a greater percentage of hydrogen –  20% of their engine capacity – measures in litres per minute is the accepted value… a 12 litre turbo Diesel needs 2.4 Litres of  Hydrogen per minute , this equates to a volume of 3.6 litres of hydrogen / oxygen mixture produced by the Hydrogen generator.

A naturally aspirated 4.8 litre petrol/ gasoline Powered engine requires 600 mls of hydrogen per minute — = equates to 900 ml of oxygen/ hydrogen mixture produced by the electrolysis system.

 

HFS Prices April 2017

A Gen 20 system is lighter , more compact and more energy efficient  and more advanced  than a Gen 15 systems and are used for engines greater than 8 litre capacity

Gen 15 systems are able to be used instead of Gen 20 systems up to 8 litre engine capacity

 

SYSTEM vehicle Weight Plate area Price  ($US) Enclosure Engine fuel
Gen 10 system family cars to 5 litre capacity 14.5 kg 6400 sq cm $POA + GST Aluminum

43cm x 25 cm x 33 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 10 system family cars to 5 litre capacity 15.5 kg 6400 sq cm $POA + GST Steel

43cm x 25 cm x 33 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 10 system family cars to 5 litre capacity 13.5 kg 6400 sq cm $POA + GST Plastic

40 cm x 20 cm x 27 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 15 Vehicles/ trucks/ 4 WD work vehicles  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 19.5 kg 14400 sq cm $POA + GST Steel

43  cm x 25 cm x 37 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 15 Vehicles/ trucks/ 4 WD work vehicles  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 15.5 kg 14400 sq cm $POA + GST Aluminum

43  cm x 25 cm x 37 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 20 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 14kg 8400 sq cm $POA + GST Plastic

35  cm x 40 cm x 30 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 20 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than5 litre 19kg 8400 sq cm $POA + GST Steel

35 cm x 40 cmx33cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 20 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 15kg 8400 sq cm $POA + GST Checker-plate aluminum

35  cm x 40 cm x 33 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 30 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than 30 litre 400 kg 105000 sq cm $POA+ GST Steel Petrol , diesel, LPG

 

 

ENGINE  CAPACITY Gen 10 Hydrogen system Gen 15 Gen  20 Hydrogen system
Up to 3 litre One Gen 10  
Up to 5 litre One Gen 10  
6 litre   One  Gen 15
 7 litre   One  Gen15
8 litre   One  Gen 15
9 litre   One Gen 20
10 litre   One  Gen 20
11 litre   Two Gen 20
12 litre   Two Gen 20
13 litre   Two Gen 20
14 litre   Three Gen 20
15litre   Three Gen 20
16 litre   Three Gen 20
17 litre   Three Gen 20
18 litre   Three Gen 20
19 litre   Three Gen 20
20 litre   Three Gen 20

Costly inefficient PWM Power supply running hydrogen Fuel systems

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Costly inefficient PWM Power supply,  whilst many experimenters are attempting to manufacture Hydrogen gas for Hydrogen on demand systems used in Vehicles , most if not all are falling into the same hole of wasting excessive electrical energy by using A DC motor speed control unit for a purpose for which it was not  designed.  The DC Motor speed control unit is readily available  and is adjustable in output, but it was not designed for electrolysis units .  They waste a large percentage of the limited input electrical energy as heat energy – energy that is better put to use in converting water into hydrogen gas.

Much is heard about the unit being a pulse width modulated unit and how a high frequency square  wave is produced to reduce back EMF and avoid energy wastage.  Yes Back EMF is a problem in any electrical motor and reducing it does make the motor speed control more effective and efficient, but this is not a motor assembly .  Back EMF is not an issue in electrolysis and so square wave generation is a pointless activity.  It simply means a more expensive control unit, wasted energy in unrequired electronics and a reason to further financially exploit a small community of individuals trying to gain from Hydrogen generation… The Cost of power supply controls has increased exponentially over the past 6years.  Compare the cost of so called HHO control units and the cost of far more complex and superior Solar power PWM control devices…. These superior solar power control PWM units are more substantial, superior units that can be modified for use in HHO systems and are a fraction the cost of the DC motor speed control units.

However even these solar devices are PWM and have specifications that are unneeded   for hydrogen generation systems

So what is the solution?

Well a control system is required that can limit the current flow into a system and fix the load in the engine electrics. However a much simpler switching system that uses MOSFETS , Power transistors , aluminium heat sinks,  Biasing resistors and potentiometers far more efficient , cheaper / simpler system  for powering the hydrogen generator.   We have done away with the square wave generation procedure to make the control unit simpler , less prone to heat damage and thermal runaway and allow more electrical energy be used to produce Chemical energy in the form of Hydrogen.

A major advantage of this new control unit is that it is simple to construct and Use and is inexpensive.  Why pay $150 for a deficient PWM motor speed control unit , from Malaysia when a simple MOSfet circuit costing under $10 can do a better job.

We at Hydrogen fuel systems pty Ltd have investigated a number of such control units and are in the final stages of selecting the Best …. Remember the old ”KISS” principle….. KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID!

Failure Neutral plate systems to produce hydrogen gas

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Failure Neutral plate systems – US Hydrogen generation systems based on the “neutral plate” arrangement are poorly and incorrectly designed systems that commonly lead to damage to the vehicle electrical system, alternator, generator and ECU.

It is is a fact that the voltage required to generate hydrogen from the electrolysis of water is strictly 1.23 volts per cell.  However this voltage itself is insufficient to generate usable volumes of hydrogen gas due to the internal resistance and poor electrical conductivity of a water cell.   ((0.2 Ω·m sea water, 2 to 200 Ω·m drinking water, 180000 Ω·m deionized water at 20°C)

Salt water , with low resistance, cannot be used as the chlorine ions provide an alternative corrosion pathway for even stainless steel 316L and so cannot be used in any electrolysis reaction used to  Generate hydrogen gas

Similarly sodium bicarbonate solutions Should not  be used in electrolysis reaction used to  Generate hydrogen gas

However potassium hydroxide solution is able to be used and also increases the concentration of hydroxide ions used in the reduction of water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Even so the high internal resistance of the liquid increases the total voltage used voltage by the system simply to overcome the internal resistance .  In summary a typical cell needs 2.2 volts to effectively work

Failure Neutral plate systems  – A US system  , with its so called neutral plates aims to break down the applied battery / alternator voltage into 2.2 volt steps time six = total 13.2 volts.  The Theory sounds good, However the hole in the plates to allow fluid through acts as a short circuit so only one cell exists ,with two active plates separate by a large gap.

So what do these manufacturers do?    The increase the voltage by using a 12 to 110 volt inverter  to generate higher current ….. But   as only one cell exists , not 6 and because there is so much overvoltage 110V – 2.2V = 107.8 volts, then the volume of steam gas produced becomes excessive  with little of no hydrogen.

Voltage x current = Power .  Excessive overvoltage  x current flow  = power / energy released as thermal energy used to boil water.

Failure Neutral plate systems – The high temperature water , overvoltage and passage of current through the holes in the plates causes charge concentrations to build up at the edges   of the holes .  This leads to electro-stripping till the plates destroy themselves, and ultimately destruction shorting  out of   cell

Batteries and alternators are now shorted out leading to their destruction and frustration OF THE  owners of these so called HHO cells.

Systems  produced by hydrogen fuel systems pty ltd are designed and build based on Valid electrochemical principles that prevent electro-stripping as well as avoiding many of the other faulty ideas of the US rubbish design ideas.

Many years of product development were used to get to the stage of the modern H.F.S. System.

We aim to manufacture hydrogen gas efficiently minimizing and avoiding energy wastage in this “electro-winning” process, and do so very effeciently.