MOSFET current control circuit for a Hydrogen generator system 1.0

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MOSFET current control circuit   MOSFET power supply to replace PWM DC power supply

increase power / electricity use to produce hydrogen

Annual Cost Savings Fuel cost reduction when hydrogen is used to supplement diesel for a single ship

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saving fuel cost  Hydrogen on demand  and shipping  –   Increasing diesel fuel economy

Information –  Phillips company

Annual Cost Savings Fuel cost reduction when hydrogen is used to supplement diesel for a single ship

hho and shipping

Using Hydrogen fuel systems on Trawlers and work vessels – page 11 AMSA

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Page 11 of this document  frmm the Australian Maritime Safety Authority  documents the savings to be achieved in shipping using Hydrogen and diesel / petrol

AMSA299-Working-Boats6

Design of a MOSFET as a Switch to control the current flow in a Hydrogen generator circuit

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MOSFET power Supply

Mosfet circuits such as the one listed  below should be used to control a electrolysis circuit  as

  1.  it is fully capable of locking in the current flow at a gven value
  2. does not suffer from thermal runnaway
  3. does not waste electrical energy in powering the electronic circuit
  4. does not reduce the usable output voltage of the power supply

The oxidation / reduction potential or voltage of a electro-winning circuit is fixed and the amount of wasted voltage in modern PWM circuits means that it reduces the number of cells that can be run from a vehicle battery  and reduces the maximum amount of gas that is produced.   Consequently a Simple MOSFET power switching circuit that does not waste voltage is an ideal alternative to a PWM design.

MOSFET as a Switch

Hydrogen in internal combustion engines- NASA investigation

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Results from 1977 investigation into the use of hydrogen on demand for use in internal combustion engines.

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.gov/19770016170.pdf

This investigation concluded there was a significant reduction in emissions and a decrease in the total energy consumption of a multicylinder piston engine running on gasoline (petrol) and a hydrogen-gasoline mixture.

Hydrogen

The results was show to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen.  Both botted hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a methanol steam reformer were used and compared to results from all gasoline.

The results were used to explain the advantages of adding hydrogen to gasoline as to a method of extending the lean operating range.   The minimum –energy –consumption equivalence ratio  was extended to leaner conditions by adding hydrogen while the minimum energy consumption did not change  – showing that more usable energy was provided.   All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions and there was a significantly  increased flame speed and reduced engine lag over all equivalence ratios   (60 cm/sec increase to 120 cm/sec at low RPM         to              110 cm/sec increase to 150 cm/sec at high RPM)

  • It was shown that pure hydrogen injection produced the same results as for hydrogen produced from the methanol reformer process
  • The minimum-energy-consumption equivalence ratio decreased from 0.79 to 0.67….. an 18 % reduction
  • Oxides of nitrogen production are appreciably lower for hydrogen / gasoline mixture . Gasoline with reformed hydrogen from methanol have higher NOx  emissions as the reformer must produce gas at a high enough temperature to prevent water and methanol condensation and the higher inlet temperature can cause higher peak combustion temperatures and therefore higher NOx emissions
  • Whilst there are limitations of using the methanol reformation process , with proper design and catalyst selection to produce the hydrogen it is a possible way to use the energy lost in exhaust gases to produce hydrogen as an interesting supplementary or alternative fuel source..

Operational temperature hydrogen fuel system – commonly known as HHO systems

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Operational temperature hydrogen fuel system – commonly known as HHO systems

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture produced at Lower temperatures has a higher concentration  than the same gas at higher temperature as is shown by the following formula .

PV =nRT.  At one atmosphere pressure the volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature (in degrees Kelvin)

  1. A common misconception is that water vapour in the air/ fuel intake will reduce  fuel efficiency …. This belief is wrong as small amounts of water vapour increases the octane rating of fuel and increases power and economy ( See Enola Gay case 1945, Harrier jump jets)
  2. It is proven that cooler temperatures in the electrolysis cell increase the lifespan of electrodes by reducing Corrosion.
  3. Increasing the temperature of an electrolysis cell reduces the internal resistance allowing more current to flow and overloading the vehicle/ engine electrical supply. Increasing the temperature of the electrical / electronic Power supply can lead  to “Thermal Runaway” and ultimate failure of the electronic power control circuitry
  4. To prevent the situation of heat from the electrolysis system, Excessive overvoltage is avoided. Applied voltage is 13.8 volts from your battery and 13.2 volts is used by the oxidation / reduction process within the cells ( 2.2 volts per cell – 6 ells) .  Overvoltage does increase the current flow , without increasing hydrogen gas production.  Extra voltage ( ENERGY / AMP OF CURRENT FLOW) is converted directly into heat  , making the water boil and electrodes corrode.
  5. Using a MOSFET current control circuit as shown in web.mit .www.  search SP07-L25 ,current control circuits are designed that do not use up available voltage and energy , and yet have full control of the current source…. Ie thermal runaway is never an issue.
  6. electronics-tutorials.ws search MOSFET’s   – an excellent site on MOSFET theory in DC switching circuits.
  7. See also Darlington transistrors ( 2 npn transiators)  as a means of power current control circuit

PWM power supply Explained

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PWM power supply explained Contrary to popular belief on places like “ Green Source” the real purpose of a PWM controller is reduce the back emf of the load and provide more usable energy to the electrolysis reaction. All too often these so called experts with little or no traditional scientific training regurgitate half truths and pure ignorance to pretend to know what they are talking about and win the confidence of the scientifically untrained masses A PWM power supply is originally designed as a motor speed control ,which it is well designed for and then put to use as an electrolysis control unit as it is able to fix the current at a given value. This is ideal to lock in the current drawn , and reduce an excessive load on the vehicle electrical system….. but …. A PWM unit also is designed to reduce back voltage as produced by a n inductive load of a motor and produce a more efficient series of square waves to minimize energy wastage. However an electrolysis system does not have an inductive load and has no back voltage to overcome and so the extra circuitry of the PWM and square wave production is simply a waste of electronics , a waste of energy and a waste of money Ideally the best circuit to use In this event is a MOSFET circuit which allows the current to be controlled and locked at a predetermined values and not waste energy or your money on expensive circuitry that dissipates energy as heat to the expense of producing hydrogen There are many MOSFET power control circuits that Are shown on youtube and google , that are a fraction the price of the expensive commercially available circuits such as the MXA 067, that can be easily built and used to control the HHO systems In Fact H.F.S has developed a very efficient and simple circuit to control the Systems which we manufacture. Some people will tell you they are trying to make the High frequency PWM produce resonance within the electrolysis cell.. These PWM units oscillate at 100 to 5000 hertz… which is a far cry from the required resonant frequency of several billion hertz. Moral to the story ,,, dont waste your money .

PWMs explained

PWM power supply explained Contrary to popular belief on places like “ Green Source” the real purpose of a PWM controller is reduce the back emf of the load and provide more usable energy to the electrolysis reaction. All too often these so called experts with little or no traditional scientific training regurgitate half truths and pure ignorance to pretend to know what they are talking about and win the confidence of the scientifically untrained masses A PWM power supply is originally designed as a motor speed control ,which it is well designed for and then put to use as an electrolysis control unit as it is able to fix the current at a given value. This is ideal to lock in the current drawn , and reduce an excessive load on the vehicle electrical system….. but …. A PWM unit also is designed to reduce back voltage as produced by a n inductive load of a motor and produce a more efficient series of square waves to minimize energy wastage. However an electrolysis system does not have an inductive load and has no back voltage to overcome and so the extra circuitry of the PWM and square wave production is simply a waste of electronics , a waste of energy and a waste of money Ideally the best circuit to use In this event is a MOSFET circuit which allows the current to be controlled and locked at a predetermined values and not waste energy or your money on expensive circuitry that dissipates energy as heat to the expense of producing hydrogen There are many MOSFET power control circuits that Are shown on youtube and google , that are a fraction the price of the expensive commercially available circuits such as the MXA 067, that can be easily built and used to control the HHO systems In Fact H.F.S has developed a very efficient and simple circuit to control the Systems which we manufacture. Some people will tell you they are trying to make the High frequency PWM produce resonance within the electrolysis cell.. These PWM units oscillate at 100 to 5000 hertz… which is a far cry from the required resonant frequency of several billion hertz. Moral to the story ,,, dont waste your money .

Hydrogen Generator System Battery condition requirements

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Hydrogen Generator System Battery condition     Battery Power supply for Hydrogen on Demand systems – Crucial points to consider

 

Essential information on car batteries

Hydrogen generator system battery condition is crucial for effective gas production.  It is essential that the battery of a vehicle in which a HHO system is installed , is in good condition . As a car battery ages , the internal resistance of the battery also increases . This increasing internal resistance reduces the percentage of the available battery energy that can be used for electrolysis Internal resistance increases with age and as the battery’s internal chemical energy is used up.

The value for a new lead-acid car battery is of the order of 0.02 ohm . ( not 0.02 watt) In this case when a current of 18 amp is being used by the car to run the electrolysis unit , then the voltage drop within the 12 volt battery is 18 x 0.02 = 0.36 volt

This means that the available voltage for the HHO system has dropped from 12 volt to 11.74 volts.

This voltage drop is not significant and a 5 cell unit can easily operate —–( each cell using approx. 2.2 volts for the Hydrogen redox reaction) – 5 x 2.2 volts = 11 volts , and the available voltage is 11.74 volt. However in the case of a damaged battery , an old battery , or a battery close to the end of its lifespan, the internal resistance of the battery itself will increase significantly . Eg……… if the internal resistance rises from 0.01 ohm to 0.2 ohm the voltage drop within the battery itself when 18 amp of current is flowing = 0.2 x 18 = 3.6 volts

This means that although the battery is still providing 18 amp of current ………. ( which is achieved by using a stronger electrolyte solution in the HHO cells)…………….. , the available voltage to power the cells has dropped from 12 volt to 8.4 volt. ( you need at least 11 volts for 5 cells)

At this voltage the cell production is significantly reduced as there is insufficient voltage to support the Redox reaction to produce Hydrogen in the cells. So where is the extra energy gone?……………… Into heat within the battery and system Conclusion = Make sure your battery and alternator are in good condition and avoid any avoidable line losses which can rob your HHO system of the energy needed to make Hydrogen from water using electrolysis.

Theory For an electrical current to flow in a conductor, there must be a driving force to move the electrons. This driving force is called electromotive force (meaning electron-motion-force) across the ends of the conductor.

Electromotive force may arise from some external device which transforms some other form of energy into electrical energy. A battery is such a device. It is the chemicals within the battery that produces the source of electromotive force. Some other sources of EMF are generators, photocells and solar cells.

The electromotive force of a battery E is the work that is needed to move a charge Q through it. The ratio of the amount of work in Joules to Q in Coulombs is called the VOLT after the Italian physicist Count Alessandro Volta (1745-1827). Thus 1V = 1J/1C. An electrical current is the flow of electric charge. The rate of flow of charge of one Coulomb per second is called the AMPERE after the French physicist Andre Ampere (1775-1836). Thus 1A = 1C/1s.

Whenever a current flows in a conductor, a potential difference is developed across it.

The relation between potential difference in volts to the current in amperes was first investigated by the German physicist Georg Ohm (1787-1854).He found that the ratio of the potential difference across a conductor to the current through it is a property of the conductor which we call resistance. The relation V = I x R is known as Ohm’s Law .

The unit of resistance is the OHM. Every source of electromotive force has some resistance within it which limits the amount of current that can be drawn from it. This is called its internal resistance . Values of internal resistance vary from 1/2 to 1 W for D and C cells to several Ws for AAA cells. Internal resistance increases with age and also as the battery’s energy is used up.

The value for a new leadacid car battery is of the order of 0.02W . When a battery is being discharged, part of the electrical energy is converted into heat within the internal resistance. The potential difference across the battery V is then less than the emf of the battery E by an amount equal to the potential difference across the internal resistance, Ir, or V = E – Ir. I is the current drawn from the battery and r is its internal resistance.

If we multiply this relation by It (the product of the current and time t), the quantity VIt represents the electrical energy delivered by the battery, EIt represents the chemical energy used up in the battery, and I2 rt represents the heat energy generated within the battery. The maximum current that may be drawn from a battery occurs when V = 0 in the above relations, or Imax=E/r. This is called the short-circuit current. It is essentially the CCA (cold cranking amperes) rating for car batteries.

The value of Imax for a 12V car battery of internal resistance 0.02 ohms is 600A and for a C or D-cell battery of internal resistance 1/2 ohm, about 3A. The 9V radio batteries consist of 6 small 1.5V cells each of about 1.5 ohms internal resistance, in series. The short circuit current of these batteries is then about 1 A. The power delivered by a battery to an external resistor R is equal to I2 R or {E/(R+r)}2 R .

By differential calculus, we obtain the result that the maximum power delivered by a battery occurs when R = r . The value of maximum power output of a battery is then is given by Pmax = E2 /4r The maximum power output of a battery is inversely proportional to its internal resistance. The smaller the internal resistance, the large is the maximum available power. The specific maximum power is the maximum power (in W) divided by the mass of the battery (in kg or g).

The capacity of a battery is the product of the current that may be drawn from it and the time for it to be exhausted. For example, a 60A.hr car battery may deliver a current of 5A for 12 hours, or 120A for 30 minutes. The product EIt is the energy of the battery. It is equal to the capacity of thr battery times its emf. The energy density of a battery is equal to EIt/volume. The purpose of this laboratory exercise to measure the emf and internal resistance of a variety of batteries and then to determine several important quantites such as maximum power, specific maximum power, energy and energy density of them. Consider a series circuit consisting of a battery of electromotive force E and internal resistance r connected to a meter of resistance rm and a resistor R as shown below.

The current flowing in the series circuit is given by Ohm’s Law, I = E/(R + r + rm), and by rearranging, R = E(1/I) – (rm + r) Thus, a graph of R (on the y-axis) versus 1/I (on the x-axis) should be linear with a slope equal to the EMF of the battery E and whose negative intercept on the R axis gives the value rm + r. If a value of the internal resistance of the ammeter rm is known (typically 0.5 to 0.5 W), a value of the internal resistance of the battery r may be determined.

Alternatively we may rewrite the above equation as RI = E – (r + rm)I, so that a graph of RI (on the y-axis) versus I (on the x-axis) should be linear with a slope equal to r + rm and intercept on the y-axis equal to E.

Battery Power supply for Hydrogen on Demand systems

Battery operation principles used to power hydrogen fuel systems

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Battery operation principles used to power hydrogen fuel systems.   The Most Important Facts (And Myths) About Your Car Battery

 

We debunk some myths and add tips to taking car of this hugely important part in your car.

Even if you’re driving a gas guzzling SUV, electricity remains crucial to driving a car. Thanks to modern-day electric batteries, drivers no longer have to turn an engine over by hand. It now all happens with the turn of a key or a press of a button.

But beyond that initial ignition, the battery continues playing a vital role in all of your vehicle’s electric systems, but some myths have circulated about this electric heart pulsating in all our autos. Here’s a thorough examination of those myths and some some cold, hard facts to replace them.

BATTERY LIFE (AND DEATH)

Getty Dave King

A car battery should last about six years, but like most car parts, that all depends on how you treat it. Multiple discharge/recharge cycles shorten any battery’s life and using electronics in the car while the engine is the quickest route to a dead battery. Of course, a battery can maintain a charge while the engine is on, but once it’s off electronics draw directly from the battery.

To avoid this recurring auto nightmare, always turn the headlights and interior lights off when you’re done driving. Remember that leaving electronics like GPS or cell phones plugged into a car charger can drain the battery, too.

No matter how well you take care of it, eventually your battery will die and you’ll need a replacement. Failing batteries usually display obvious symptoms that let you know it’s on its way out. Slow cranking on startup indicates that the battery may not be able to provide enough power to fire up the engine, and an illuminated Battery Warning Light on the dashboard is clear indicator it needs attention. If vehicle electronics like remote locks or interior lights randomly stop working, a dying or dead battery could be why.

Also, batteries—alive or dead—are full of chemicals, so do nature a favor and dispose of dead ones properly. Don’t just toss it in the trash because chances are your local mobile mechanic or auto supply store can recycle it for you.

WEATHER MATTERS

Getty Spencer Platt

Ambient temperature has a significant impact on battery life and performance. Most car batteries use a liquid electrolyte solution to hold a charge, which is affected by hot or cold weather. While it takes extremely low temperatures to freeze a battery, cold reduces the solution’s ability to transfer full power (which is why it can be hard to start a car in winter). There’s a misconception that buying a battery with a higher CCA (cold cranking amp) rating will remedy this, but since vehicle computers regulate the amperage required for startup, it actually won’t make any difference. Use a battery heater instead – it’s like a toasty jacket that will keep your battery warm and reliable all winter.

On the flip side, hot weather can cause the battery solution to evaporate, limiting its ability to hold a charge. You may notice a rotten egg smell from the sulfur in the solution if this happens. A common myth is that you can simply refill it with tap water to make up for evaporation, but tap water contains minerals and impurities that can damage battery cells. Use deionized or demineralized water instead, but if you have to do this it’s probably a sign that you need a replacement soon. Keeping your car garaged helps the battery cope with temperature extremes so it lasts longer and works more reliably.

JUMPSTARTING MADE EASY

Almost every driver has to deal with a dead battery, and jumpstarting is usually the easiest way to get it recharged. It’s a relatively straightforward process, but it’s still important to follow these steps exactly.

Here’s how it works. First, to jumpstart a car, you will need:

  • A set of jumper cables
  • Another vehicle with a fully charged battery of the same voltage of the car being jumped
  • Rubber work gloves
  • Safety goggles

Before jump-starting your car, read the owner’s manual. The process is similar for most cars, but there may be special considerations for your specific vehicle.

  1. Park the vehicles close enough that the jumper cables reach each battery.
  2. Make sure each vehicle is in Park or Neutral.
  3. Turn off the vehicle with the good battery.
  4. Turn off or unplug any electronics, including headlights, hazard lights, radios, or cell phone chargers in each vehicle.
  5. Open the hood of each vehicle and put on the work gloves and safety goggles.
  6. Connect one end of the red (positive) jumper cable to the red positive (+) post of the dead battery.
  7. Connect the other end of the red (positive) jumper cable to the red repositive (+) post of the charged battery.
  8. Connect one end of the black (negative) jumper cable to the black negative (-) post of the charged battery.
  9. Connect the other end of the black (negative) jumper cable to an unpainted metal part in the dead car, as far from the battery as the cable will reach. This grounds the circuit and helps prevent sparking.
  10. Now you’re ready to actually jumpstart the car. Turn on the car with the fully charged battery and let it idle for roughly five to 10 minutes. Revving the engine won’t help: jumpstarting draws amps from the good battery, which is unaffected by engine power.
  11. Turn off the engine and remove the cables in reverse order, being careful to not let the clamps touch any metal surface.
  12. Start the car with the dead battery. If it starts, let it idle for at least 20 minutes, or go on a five-mile drive so the battery can recharge. If it still won’t start, repeat the process.

Jumpstarting is one way to get your car started again, but remember that every time a battery is fully discharged its life becomes shorter. If nothing else, the alternator will have to work harder to recharge that drained battery, which reduces fuel economy.

IT’S NOT ALWAYS THE BATTERY

Getty Westend61

If your car won’t start, a dead battery is the likely culprit. However, there are numerous components that can cause similar symptoms. A faulty starter motor will make a click when you turn the key that sounds similar to a dead battery. If the alternator fails, the battery won’t recharge when the engine is on, leading to a no-start condition. Clogged fuel injectors or worn-out spark plugs can be a problem, and corrosion on the battery terminals, which prevents the flow of electricity, is common too. Fortunately, it’s easy to clean with a wire brush or steel wool.

With the popularity of all-electric vehicles soaring, there’s a good chance your next car will be powered entirely by batteries. But until then, follow these steps to keep your current gas guzzler in shape so that you never have to break out the jumper cables.

 

The Most Important Facts about batteries

Renewable hydrogen could fuel Australia

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Renewable hydrogen could fuel Australia