How does Hydrogen gas produce a cleaner engine

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How does Hydrogen gas produce a cleaner engine

What size Hydrogen generator system do I need

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What size Hydrogen generator system do I need

What size Hydrogen generator system do I need?

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What size system do I need

The price structure sheet  below shows the vehicle engine capacity and appropriate system to match.

Basically any engine has a Hydrogen stoichiometric ratio of 12.5 % … that is the optimum volume of required hydrogen is 12.5% or 1/8th  the engine capacity  , measured in litres per  minute

A Gen 10 system has a total electrode area that suits the engine to 5 litre capacity

A Gen 15 system has a total electrode area that suits the engine to 8 litre capacity

A Gen 20 system has a total electrode area that suits the engine to 8  litre capacity and can be connected in series to suit engines to 20 litre capacity

Gen 15 and Gen 10 systems can also be connected in series if required , however the Gen 20 is specially designed  for  series / multiple unit connections for larger engines

All systems can be powered by 12 volt or 24 volt supply .  24 Volt supplies naturally have greater output.  Some clients have opted to use a 12 Volt / 24 Volt DC voltage inverter for their systems .

Turbo powered engines require a greater percentage of hydrogen –  20% of their engine capacity – measures in litres per minute is the accepted value… a 12 litre turbo Diesel needs 2.4 Litres of  Hydrogen per minute , this equates to a volume of 3.6 litres of hydrogen / oxygen mixture produced by the Hydrogen generator.

A naturally aspirated 4.8 litre petrol/ gasoline Powered engine requires 600 mls of hydrogen per minute — = equates to 900 ml of oxygen/ hydrogen mixture produced by the electrolysis system.

 

HFS Prices April 2017

A Gen 20 system is lighter , more compact and more energy efficient  and more advanced  than a Gen 15 systems and are used for engines greater than 8 litre capacity

Gen 15 systems are able to be used instead of Gen 20 systems up to 8 litre engine capacity

 

SYSTEM vehicle Weight Plate area Price  ($US) Enclosure Engine fuel
Gen 10 system family cars to 5 litre capacity 14.5 kg 6400 sq cm $POA + GST Aluminum

43cm x 25 cm x 33 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 10 system family cars to 5 litre capacity 15.5 kg 6400 sq cm $POA + GST Steel

43cm x 25 cm x 33 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 10 system family cars to 5 litre capacity 13.5 kg 6400 sq cm $POA + GST Plastic

40 cm x 20 cm x 27 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 15 Vehicles/ trucks/ 4 WD work vehicles  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 19.5 kg 14400 sq cm $POA + GST Steel

43  cm x 25 cm x 37 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 15 Vehicles/ trucks/ 4 WD work vehicles  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 15.5 kg 14400 sq cm $POA + GST Aluminum

43  cm x 25 cm x 37 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 20 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 14kg 8400 sq cm $POA + GST Plastic

35  cm x 40 cm x 30 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 20 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than5 litre 19kg 8400 sq cm $POA + GST Steel

35 cm x 40 cmx33cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 20 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than 5 litre 15kg 8400 sq cm $POA + GST Checker-plate aluminum

35  cm x 40 cm x 33 cm high

Petrol , diesel, LPG
Gen 30 Trucks/ Gensets / Trawlers  engine capacity greater than 30 litre 400 kg 105000 sq cm $POA+ GST Steel Petrol , diesel, LPG

 

 

ENGINE  CAPACITY Gen 10 Hydrogen system Gen 15 Gen  20 Hydrogen system
Up to 3 litre One Gen 10  
Up to 5 litre One Gen 10  
6 litre   One  Gen 15
 7 litre   One  Gen15
8 litre   One  Gen 15
9 litre   One Gen 20
10 litre   One  Gen 20
11 litre   Two Gen 20
12 litre   Two Gen 20
13 litre   Two Gen 20
14 litre   Three Gen 20
15litre   Three Gen 20
16 litre   Three Gen 20
17 litre   Three Gen 20
18 litre   Three Gen 20
19 litre   Three Gen 20
20 litre   Three Gen 20

Costly inefficient PWM Power supply running hydrogen Fuel systems

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Costly inefficient PWM Power supply,  whilst many experimenters are attempting to manufacture Hydrogen gas for Hydrogen on demand systems used in Vehicles , most if not all are falling into the same hole of wasting excessive electrical energy by using A DC motor speed control unit for a purpose for which it was not  designed.  The DC Motor speed control unit is readily available  and is adjustable in output, but it was not designed for electrolysis units .  They waste a large percentage of the limited input electrical energy as heat energy – energy that is better put to use in converting water into hydrogen gas.

Much is heard about the unit being a pulse width modulated unit and how a high frequency square  wave is produced to reduce back EMF and avoid energy wastage.  Yes Back EMF is a problem in any electrical motor and reducing it does make the motor speed control more effective and efficient, but this is not a motor assembly .  Back EMF is not an issue in electrolysis and so square wave generation is a pointless activity.  It simply means a more expensive control unit, wasted energy in unrequired electronics and a reason to further financially exploit a small community of individuals trying to gain from Hydrogen generation… The Cost of power supply controls has increased exponentially over the past 6years.  Compare the cost of so called HHO control units and the cost of far more complex and superior Solar power PWM control devices…. These superior solar power control PWM units are more substantial, superior units that can be modified for use in HHO systems and are a fraction the cost of the DC motor speed control units.

However even these solar devices are PWM and have specifications that are unneeded   for hydrogen generation systems

So what is the solution?

Well a control system is required that can limit the current flow into a system and fix the load in the engine electrics. However a much simpler switching system that uses MOSFETS , Power transistors , aluminium heat sinks,  Biasing resistors and potentiometers far more efficient , cheaper / simpler system  for powering the hydrogen generator.   We have done away with the square wave generation procedure to make the control unit simpler , less prone to heat damage and thermal runaway and allow more electrical energy be used to produce Chemical energy in the form of Hydrogen.

A major advantage of this new control unit is that it is simple to construct and Use and is inexpensive.  Why pay $150 for a deficient PWM motor speed control unit , from Malaysia when a simple MOSfet circuit costing under $10 can do a better job.

We at Hydrogen fuel systems pty Ltd have investigated a number of such control units and are in the final stages of selecting the Best …. Remember the old ”KISS” principle….. KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID!

Failure Neutral plate systems to produce hydrogen gas

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Failure Neutral plate systems – US Hydrogen generation systems based on the “neutral plate” arrangement are poorly and incorrectly designed systems that commonly lead to damage to the vehicle electrical system, alternator, generator and ECU.

It is is a fact that the voltage required to generate hydrogen from the electrolysis of water is strictly 1.23 volts per cell.  However this voltage itself is insufficient to generate usable volumes of hydrogen gas due to the internal resistance and poor electrical conductivity of a water cell.   ((0.2 Ω·m sea water, 2 to 200 Ω·m drinking water, 180000 Ω·m deionized water at 20°C)

Salt water , with low resistance, cannot be used as the chlorine ions provide an alternative corrosion pathway for even stainless steel 316L and so cannot be used in any electrolysis reaction used to  Generate hydrogen gas

Similarly sodium bicarbonate solutions Should not  be used in electrolysis reaction used to  Generate hydrogen gas

However potassium hydroxide solution is able to be used and also increases the concentration of hydroxide ions used in the reduction of water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Even so the high internal resistance of the liquid increases the total voltage used voltage by the system simply to overcome the internal resistance .  In summary a typical cell needs 2.2 volts to effectively work

Failure Neutral plate systems  – A US system  , with its so called neutral plates aims to break down the applied battery / alternator voltage into 2.2 volt steps time six = total 13.2 volts.  The Theory sounds good, However the hole in the plates to allow fluid through acts as a short circuit so only one cell exists ,with two active plates separate by a large gap.

So what do these manufacturers do?    The increase the voltage by using a 12 to 110 volt inverter  to generate higher current ….. But   as only one cell exists , not 6 and because there is so much overvoltage 110V – 2.2V = 107.8 volts, then the volume of steam gas produced becomes excessive  with little of no hydrogen.

Voltage x current = Power .  Excessive overvoltage  x current flow  = power / energy released as thermal energy used to boil water.

Failure Neutral plate systems – The high temperature water , overvoltage and passage of current through the holes in the plates causes charge concentrations to build up at the edges   of the holes .  This leads to electro-stripping till the plates destroy themselves, and ultimately destruction shorting  out of   cell

Batteries and alternators are now shorted out leading to their destruction and frustration OF THE  owners of these so called HHO cells.

Systems  produced by hydrogen fuel systems pty ltd are designed and build based on Valid electrochemical principles that prevent electro-stripping as well as avoiding many of the other faulty ideas of the US rubbish design ideas.

Many years of product development were used to get to the stage of the modern H.F.S. System.

We aim to manufacture hydrogen gas efficiently minimizing and avoiding energy wastage in this “electro-winning” process, and do so very effeciently.

Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte – handling of powerful chemicals

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Handling the electrolyte Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte – handling of powerful chemicals – This electrolyser design uses potassium hydroxide solution in the electrolyser itself and fresh/ distilled  water in the water tank as the potassium hydroxide is a true catalyst which assists the electrolysis process but does not get used up in the reaction. The Oxidation / Reduction Potential of Potassium Hydroxide is lowest of all Suitable electrolytes , so that the maximum volume of Hydrogen and oxygen gas can be produced using Battery voltage.

Potassium hydroxide is a strong caustic material and considerable care needs to be taken when preparing it.   These  instructions should be followed carefully in every respect when handling potassium hydroxide and preparing stainless steel for use in an electrolyser:

Mixing Potassium Hydroxide Solution
Potassium hydroxide is also known as “caustic potash” and it is highly caustic.   Consequently, it needs to be handled carefully and kept away from contact with skin, and even more importantly, eyes.   If any splashes come in contact with you, it is very important indeed that the affected area be immediately rinsed off with large amounts of running water and if necessary, the use of vinegar which is s week acid id used to neutralize the caustic liquid

This electrolyser design requires you to make up a weak solution of potassium hydroxide.   This is done by adding small amounts of the potassium hydroxide to distilled water held in a plastic container.   The container must not be glass as most glass is unable to handle the large amount of heat produced by mixing Potassium Hydroxide with water… Strongly Exothermic dissolution reaction
Potassium hydroxide, also called KOH or “Caustic Potash”, can be bought in small quantities from soap making supply outlets.   While Potassium hydroxide is the very best electrolyte, it needs to be treated with care:

Always store it in a sturdy, air-tight container which is clearly labelled “DANGER! – Potassium Hydroxide”.   Keep the container in a safe place, where it can’t be reached by children, pets or people who won’t take any notice of the label.   If your supply of KOH is delivered in a strong plastic bag, then once you open the bag, you should transfer all its contents to sturdy, air-tight, plastic storage containers, which you can open and close without risking spilling the contents.   Hardware stores sell large plastic buckets with air tight lids that can be used for this purpose.

When working with dry KOH flakes or granules, wear safety goggles, rubber gloves, a long sleeved shirt, socks and long trousers.   Also, don’t wear your favorite clothes when handling KOH solution as it is not the best thing to get on clothes.   It is also no harm to wear a face mask which covers your mouth and nose.   If you are mixing solid KOH with water, always add the KOH to the water, and not the other way round, and use a plastic container for the mixing, preferably one which has double the capacity of the finished mixture.   The mixing should be done in a well-ventilated area which is not draughty as air currents can blow the dry KOH around.

When mixing the electrolyte, never use warm water.   The water should be cool because the chemical reaction between the water and the KOH generates a good deal of heat.   If possible, place the mixing container in a larger container filled with cold water, as that will help to keep the temperature down, and if your mixture should “boil over” it will contain the spillage.   Add only a small amount of KOH at a time, stirring continuously, and if you stop stirring for any reason, put the lids back on all containers.

If, in spite of all precautions, you get some KOH solution on your skin, wash it off with plenty of running cold water and apply some vinegar to the skin.   Vinegar is acidic, and will help balance out the alkalinity of the KOH.   You can use lemon juice if you don’t have vinegar to hand – but it is always recommended to keep a bottle of vinegar handy.

Electrolysis water Reduction of water to hydrogen/oxygen

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Electrolysis water

Electolysis of water

Electolysis-of-water (1)

The “Neutral Plate” fairy tale

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Neutral plate construction

For years I have been hearing the garbage of the innovative neutral  plate  system of making HHO and how it is so good it will allow a vehicle to run totally on water…. Absolute garbage. Lets look at some of these statements as trump would say – the fake news of HHO .

Firstly I am a Traditional  Research Scientist, Theoretical  Physicist,  Chemist, Engineer, teacher and University researcher .  I hold multiple University Qualifications and years of experience Teaching and University research..  I do not believe in the tooth fairy , the Easter Bunny or Free energy.

There is no such thing as HHO . HHO is water  H20. Water is extremely stable and required large amounts of energy to produce Hydrogen and oxygen gas .   Monatomic hydrogen cannot and will not exist and monatomic oxygen cannot exist.. you don’t want it to exist as it would violently react with anything it came into contact with resulting with your demise.

Electrolysis separates water into hydrogen and oxygen gas… that’s it.

FARADAYS LAW EXPLAINS  how much hydrogen and oxygen gas you will collect from electrolysis of water using 1 amp of current ( 1 amp = 6023000000000000000 electrons per second ).  If you are getting more than this fixed amount  then you are most likely producing steam …. If you want steam , buy a kettle , its cheaper.

All the Bullshit about over unity devices are made by people who  have no scientific background and listening to the bullshit , I doubt they even finished primary school…. Yet they talk about parahydrogen and orthohydrogen  , as well as ranting about resonance devices……

Bullshit artists like this use Scientific mumbo jumbo to sound intelligent and fool the scientifically uneducated members of our society.  That’s where  the problem originates .  Our pathetic education system from Primary to secondary school does a pathetic job in educating and promoting education in Science  and Mathematics to such an extent that anyone who knows a mixture of scientific terminology and “Pseudo scientific Mumbo Jumbo”  can appear intelligent and  convincing to the uneducated  masses.

Neutral plates do not exist.

The oxidation / reduction potential or voltage required to decompose water into hydrogen / oxygen mixture, together with the voltage drop from the internal resistance of water , adds up to approx. 2.2 volts.  Neutral plates aims to break down the 13.8 voltage applied into 6 steps of 2.2 volts .  However having a hole in the plates to allow water and gas flow , results in a short circuit where the plates are not able to break down the applied voltage into 2.2 volt steps, but rather require a much =larger applied voltage to conduct  between the one anode and one cathode…. Massive voltage of 110 is often used . Only one cell exists with the neutral plates , with massive over voltage = 110 – 2.2 = 107.8 volts……. Voltage is equivalent to energy and with so much energy wasted  you end up boiling water…… buy a kettle its cheaper

Neutral plates don’t and cant work.  Cells overheat, stainless steel corrodes and the cells self destruct

Hydrogen generation patent data base- [US Patent & Trademark Office, Patent Full Text and Image Database]

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http://patft.uspto.gov/

http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html

Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production could revolutionize alternative energy market Virginia Tech

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Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production could revolutionize alternative energy market      Researchers have discovered a way to extract large quantities of hydrogen from any plant, a breakthrough that has the potential to bring a low-cost, environmentally friendly fuel source to the world.

A team of Virginia Tech researchers has discovered a way to extract large quantities of hydrogen from any plant, a breakthrough that has the potential to bring a low-cost, environmentally friendly fuel source to the world.

“Our new process could help end our dependence on fossil fuels,” said Y.H. Percival Zhang, an associate professor of biological systems engineering in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the College of Engineering. “Hydrogen is one of the most important biofuels of the future.”

Zhang and his team have succeeded in using xylose, the most abundant simple plant sugar, to produce a large quantity of hydrogen that previously was attainable only in theory. Zhang’s method can be performed using any source of biomass.

The discovery is a featured editor’s choice in an online version of the chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie, International Edition.

Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production  this new environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen utilizes renewable natural resources, releases almost no zero greenhouse gasses, and does not require costly or heavy metals. Previous methods to produce hydrogen are expensive and create greenhouse gases.

The U.S. Department of Energy says that hydrogen fuel has the potential to dramatically reduce reliance of fossil fuels and automobile manufactures are aggressively trying to develop vehicles that run on hydrogen fuel cells. Unlike gas-powered engines that spew out pollutants, the only byproduct of hydrogen fuel is water. Zhang’s discovery opens the door to an inexpensive, renewable source of hydrogen.

Jonathan R. Mielenz, group leader of the bioscience and technology biosciences division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who is familiar with Zhang’s work but not affiliated with this project, said this discovery has the potential to have a major impact on alternative energy production.

“The key to this exciting development is that Zhang is using the second most prevalent sugar in plants to produce this hydrogen,” he said. “This amounts to a significant additional benefit to hydrogen production and it reduces the overall cost of producing hydrogen from biomass.”

Mielenz said Zhang’s process could find its way to the marketplace as quickly as three years if the technology is available. Zhang said when it does become commercially available, it has the possibility of making an enormous impact.

“The potential for profit and environmental benefits are why so many automobile, oil, and energy companies are working on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as the transportation of the future,” Zhang said. “Many people believe we will enter the hydrogen economy soon, with a market capacity of at least $1 trillion in the United States alone.”

Obstacles to commercial production of hydrogen gas from biomass previously included the high cost of the processes used and the relatively low quantity of the end product.

But Zhang thinks he has found the answers to those problems.

Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production   For seven years, Zhang’s team has been focused on finding non-traditional ways to produce high-yield hydrogen at low cost, specifically researching enzyme combinations, discovering novel enzymes, and engineering enzymes with desirable properties.

The team liberates the high-purity hydrogen under mild reaction conditions at 122 degree Fahrenheit and normal atmospheric pressure. The biocatalysts used to release the hydrogen are a group of enzymes artificially isolated from different microorganisms that thrive at extreme temperatures, some of which could grow at around the boiling point of water.

The researchers chose to use xylose, which comprises as much as 30 percent of plant cell walls. Despite its abundance, the use of xylose for releasing hydrogen has been limited. The natural or engineered microorganisms that most scientists use in their experiments cannot produce hydrogen in high yield because these microorganisms grow and reproduce instead of splitting water molecules to yield pure hydrogen.

To liberate the hydrogen, Virginia Tech scientists separated a number of enzymes from their native microorganisms to create a customized enzyme cocktail that does not occur in nature. The enzymes, when combined with xylose and a polyphosphate, liberate the unprecedentedly high volume of hydrogen from xylose, resulting in the production of about three times as much hydrogen as other hydrogen-producing microorganisms.

The energy stored in xylose splits water molecules, yielding high-purity hydrogen that can be directly utilized by proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Even more appealing, this reaction occurs at low temperatures, generating hydrogen energy that is greater than the chemical energy stored in xylose and the polyphosphate. This results in an energy efficiency of more than 100 percent — a net energy gain. That means that low-temperature waste heat can be used to produce high-quality chemical energy hydrogen for the first time. Other processes that convert sugar into biofuels such as ethanol and butanol always have energy efficiencies of less than 100 percent, resulting in an energy penalty.

In his previous research, Zhang used enzymes to produce hydrogen from starch, but the reaction required a food source that made the process too costly for mass production.

The commercial market for hydrogen gas is now around $100 billion for hydrogen produced from natural gas, which is expensive to manufacture and generates a large amount of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Industry most often uses hydrogen to manufacture ammonia for fertilizers and to refine petrochemicals, but an inexpensive, plentiful green hydrogen source can rapidly change that market.

“It really doesn’t make sense to use non-renewable natural resources to produce hydrogen,” Zhang said. “We think this discovery is a game-changer in the world of alternative energy.”

Support for the current research comes from the Department of Biological Systems Engineering at Virginia Tech. Additional resources were contributed by the Shell GameChanger Program, the Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences’ Biodesign and Bioprocessing Research Center, and the U.S. Department of Energy BioEnergy Science Center, along with the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. The lead author of the article, Julia S. Martin Del Campo, who works in Zhang’s lab, received her Ph.D. grant from the Mexican Council of Science and Technology.


Story Source:

Materials provided by Virginia Tech. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Julia S. Martín del Campo, Joseph Rollin, Suwan Myung, You Chun, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Rodrigo Patiño, Michael WW Adams, Y.-H. Percival Zhang. High-Yield Production of Dihydrogen from Xylose by Using a Synthetic Enzyme Cascade in a Cell-Free System. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2013; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201300766

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