Hydrogen fuel systems
Hydrogen systems for Diesel Engines University Research
Hydrogen fuel systems. Today October 3 2017, On Holidays at Ramada resort, Dunsborough WA, I was conducting research online for the following research topic
“hydrogen systems for diesel engines university research”
I was able to find many authentic research articles including ones from a group from with URL address
Science direct is a University research URL requiring membership., However there are many reference links showing authors and published papers which can be easily located online through a google search
One such paper I found to start with was headed “Combustion characteristics of diesel-hydrogen dual fuel engine at low load” and was located at the URL1-s2.0-S1876610213000040-main hydrogen dual fuel
Which I downloaded and have copied onto this post
The research report was well written and a clear concise document providing proof of the use of Hydrogen as a duel fuel for use with diesel
Hydrogen fuel systems
“In the present study, hydrogen utilization as diesel engine fuel at low load operation was investigated. Hydrogen cannot be used directly in a diesel engine due to its auto ignition temperature higher than that of diesel fuel. One alternative method is to use hydrogen in enrichment or induction. To investigate the combustion characteristics of this dual fuel engine, a single cylinder diesel research engine was converted to utilize hydrogen as fuel. Hydrogen was introduced to the intake manifold using a mixer before entering the combustion chamber. The engine was run at a constant speed of 2000 rpm and 10 Nm load. Hydrogen was introduced at the flow rate of 21.4, 36.2, and 49.6 liter/minute. Specific energy consumption, indicated efficiency, and cylinder pressure were investigated. At this low load, the hydrogen enrichment reduced the cylinder peak pressure and the engine efficiency.”
Hydrogen fuel systems
“The advantages of using hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engine is among other a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel, non-toxic, odorless, and has wide range flammability. Other hydrogen properties that would be a challenge to solve when using it for internal combustion engine fuel, i.e.: low ignition energy, small quenching distance, and low density”
Hydrogen fuel systems
“5. Conclusion Experiments and simulation works were conducted on DI diesel engine with hydrogen in the dual fuel mode. Under constant load and speed engine operation, hydrogen induction into the intake manifold 10 W.B. Santoso et al. / Energy Procedia 32 ( 2013 ) 3 – 10 reduces the diesel fuel consumption. Diesel reduction of 50, 90, and 97% was achieved during the investigation. These relatively high percentages of hydrogen fuel are detrimental to the engine performance in terms of energy consumption and efficiency. An increasing hydrogen flow rate at the low load operation results in a higher SEC. It means that more fuel is necessary to produce the same power output. At this low load operation, the efficiency decreases with hydrogen enrichment. This condition affects the values of SEC. Measurement of in-cylinder pressure was carried out to investigate the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. Hydrogen enrichment reduced the peak pressure and retarded the start of combustion. CFD simulation reveals that hydrogen enrichment in such a high percentage resulted in slower reaction progress due to lower combustion rate of reaction. Temperature distributions along the cut plane at the spray axis showed the progress of the combustion processes. Acknowledgment The authors wish to thank Universiti Malaysia Pahang for supporting this research under GRS 100303. Fully support from LIPI by providing the experiment and simulation facilities are grateful acknowledged.
References  Fulton J, Lynch F, Marmora R. Hydrogen for reducing emissions from alternative fuel vehicle. SAE Technical Paper 1993;No. 931813.
 Saravanan N, Nagarajan G. An experimental investigation of hydrogen-enriched air induction in a diesel engine system. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2008; 33:1769-1775
.  Pundir BP, Kumar R. Combustion and smoke emission studies on a hydrogen fuel supplemented DI diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2007;No. 2007-01-0055.
 Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Kalaiselvan KM, Dhanasekaran C. An experimental investigation on hydrogen as a dual fuel for diesel engine system with exhaust gas recirculation technique. Renewable Energy. 2008;33:422-427.
 McWilliam L, Megaritis T, Zhao H. Experimental investigation of the effects of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the emissions of a HSDI diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2008;No. 2008-01-1787.
 Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Dhanasekaran C, Kalaiselvan KM. Experimental investigation of hydrogen port fuel injection in DI diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2007;32:4071-4080.
 Lilik GK, Zhang H, Herreros JM, Haworth DC, Boehman AL. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2010;35:4382-4398.
 Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Dhanasekaran C, Kalaiselvan KM. Experimental investigation of hydrogen fuel injection in DI dual fuel diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2007;No. 2007-01-1465.
 Saravanan N, Nagarajan G. An experimental investigation on a diesel engine with hydrogen fuel injection in intake manifold. SAE Technical Paper. 2008;No. 2008-01-1784.
 Saravanan N, Nagarajan G. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source. Applied Energy. 2010;87:2218-2229.
 Bose PK, Maji D. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine using hydrogen as inducted fuel and diesel as injected fuel with exhaust gas recirculation. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2009;34:4847- 4854.
 Szwaja S, Grab-Rogalinski K. Hydrogen combustion in a compression ignition diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2009;34:4413-4421
Hydrogen Generator systems for heavy duty trucking
Hydrogen Generator. Recently HFS were commissioned By Coogee chemicals Pty Ltd , west Australia to produce a new configuration of Hydrogen fuel systems to save fuel on their Cummins Powered Kenworth trucking.
The New configuration was mounted into a stainless steel enclosure box with stainless steel piping and stainless steel recycling container which is used to collect the hydrogen gas and pass it through the engine.
The new configuration is designed to be rhobust and capable of handling extreme conditions or rough driving terrain , high temperature . The enclosure box is made from stainless steel 316 and 2.5 mm thick material – easily able to handle reasonable impact loads . The Pumping system is 12V- 24 V with a pressure head od 8 m and only used for mixing the solution.
A digital electronic fuel enhancer module is used to adjust the sensor signals from the 1. Manifold air pressure sensor, 2, Coolant temperature sensor and 3. Air intake temperature sensor – so as to modify the engine fuel map save fuel and increase engine power and torque
The aim of the EFIE is to reduce MAP settings by 10%, increase the AIT settings by 50celcius and CTS settings by 7 celcius.
Photos below show the position of the hydrogen fuel system and efie.
Recently I purchased a 3D printer with then aim of making and testing new designs in both hydrogen generator systems as well as In magnetic generators
After copying a number of designs for system modifictions finally found a program called Tinkercad.com which enabled me to quickly create , modify , adjust , print and test a number of plastic units to be used in systems.
The Beauty of this program Tinkercad.com is that is able accurately and cheaply manufacture multiple versions of a system component without the high cost of a CNC machine
Also provided with this program is an excellent set of training videos to teach you how to get the best of the 3D printer
These devices were used to 3d print scaled versions of both plastic and metal parts for construction of the hydrogen generator system as well as the magnetic motor system.
I will be sharing some of these designs for the world to view , , use, modify as required in building the new generator systems.
New Hydrogen systems installed Coogee chemicals
New Hydrogen systems installed Coogee chemicals heavy haulage trucks
improvement in fuel economy 20%— 16 Litre cummins diesel engine 600 HP – new engine
METHANE – THE FORGOTTEN GAS
Dr Graham Phillips Introduction: Carbon dioxide is synonymous with climate change but what about the other greenhouses gases that we hear little about. Dr Paul Willis reports on a gas that is 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, and unleashed could have devastating consequences.
Narration: We know that global warming is complex.
Dr Evelyn Krull: We are not looking at the whole picture.
Narration: Perhaps we’re missing something important.
Dr Andrew Smith: Increased in concentration by something like two hundred and fifty percent.
Narration: A climate player with a murky past
Dr David Etheridge: warming the globe for very long periods.
Dr Paul Willis: When it comes to climate change, carbon dioxide gets all the attention, but these cows here are producing a greenhouse gas that is more potent than carbon dioxide. It’s a gas that’s been implicated in the greatest mass extinction of all time, and we’re pumping it out at an ever increasing rate.
Dr Etheridge: It has some fairly complex roles in our climate and in the chemistry of the atmosphere.
Dr Smith: It is an important player.
Narration: It’s methane, the forgotten greenhouse gas. And it’s a gas that’s surrounded in myths. Contrary to popular opinion, it doesn’t smell, and no, it’s not a major component of farts. More methane is actually pumped out from the other end… In fact one cow can belch out an astounding 700 litres of methane in a day! But there are many other sources of methane…
Dr Smith: The sources of methane can be broadly categorized as biogenic, of biological origin, pyrogenic, which is basically combusted biomass, and fossil sources.
Narration: Some of the methane in the atmosphere today has natural origins. But more than half of it was put there by us… And of that landfill, agriculture and mining account for about a third each. The atmospheric methane concentration today is just under 2 parts per million compared to carbon dioxide which is currently 384 parts per million. But atom for atom methane is far more potent than CO2 and it accounts for a whopping 20% of the green house warming effect. Working out where atmospheric methane has come from is a tricky business but it is a vital part of developing strategies to control it.
Dr Etheridge: So one way we do it, is we take air off the roof there, down a line, into a pump, and then take it over here where we analyse it for Methane.
Narration: Dr David Etheridge measures air samples from the roof of his CSIRO lab in Melbourne.
Dr David Etheridge: This is the methane concentration right now from above our roof top.
Narration: And with new technology they are now able to analyse bottled atmosphere from this library of air archive. Some of these canisters were stored 30 years ago.
Paul: This is the oldest specimen it comes from Cape Grim and it was collected in 1978.
Dr Etheridge: These are remote stations which have been placed to capture air coming off oceans, which is pretty much what we call background or baseline air.
Narration: So what’s the picture so far?
Dr Etheridge: From 1978 onwards (the earliest measurements) there was a rapid increase in methane concentration.
Narration: And this was mainly because of an increase in agriculture and industry. But then something unexpected happened –
Dr Etheridge: Methane has stabilized in concentration ah beginning in about 1999. And it wasn’t too clear what that was…
Narration: We’ll deal with the future of methane later, but how do we investigate what happened prior to 1978? The answer is trapped in ice.
Dr Smith: That’s a nice sample.
Narration: CSIRO scientist, Dr Andrew Smith and his colleagues have been drilling ice cores in Antarctica as well as recovering samples from Greenland. And the challenge is enormous …
Dr Andrew Smith: Aiming to produce a five microgram carbon sample after having liberating the air from a hundred kilograms of ice – this is tough.
Paul: This is a cut section of the ice core, and you can actually see the tiny bubbles of ancient atmosphere that these guys are interested in.
Narration: After painstakingly extracting the methane gas from the ice core, it’s converted into carbon, and then, it’s ready for analysis.
Paul: This is ANTARES the Australian National Tandem for Applied Research. It’s an extremely accurate atom counter and it’s just the tool you need to work out the history of methane in the atmosphere.
Narration: Samples are mounted on a sample wheel, ionised, accelerated, have their polarity reversed, stripped of their electrons all in a trillionth of a blink of an eye and they end up here.
Paul: So how sensitive is this? How many atoms can you count?
Dr Smith: Well this equipment, it gives us the ability to detect just one carbon fourteen atom in amongst ten to the sixteen stable carbon atoms. That’s a very big number. Ah it’s equivalent for example to finding one yellow grain of sand in amongst twenty tons of orange sand.
Paul: One in a gazillion.
Narration: Thanks to the work of scientists around the world, we can now track the history of atmospheric methane back some 800,000 years. Generally levels go down when there’s an ice age and they come up again in the interglacial periods. But something alarming has happened to methane levels since the beginning of the industrial revolution.
Dr Smith: The methane concentration has increased by two hundred and fifty percent over the agro-industrial period.
Narration: While that rise is alarming and its consequences unknown, there is an upside to the methane story. We can do something about it – by harnessing its energy.
Paul: Most of the methane in the atmosphere today has been put there by humans through landfill, coal mining, agriculture and other activities; But unlike CO2 it’s relatively easy to capture methane before it gets loose… and it pays to do so.
Narration: As the rubbish decomposes methane is released and captured in these pipes. It’s then pumped to this power station. The energy generated here has the potential to provide electricity to 16,000 homes… and even though CO2 is being produced in the process, the original methane is 20 times more harmful as a green house gas. While it looks like we can control the release of methane from some sources we shouldn’t be too complacent. There could be a spectre of doom lurking, a vast hidden source of methane… They’re called clathrates. It’s methane that’s been locked inside the crystal structure of water ice. They are found around the continental margins of oceans and polar regions, in very cold, high pressure conditions. They’re also locked up in the frozen tundra…
Dr Smith: There’s an enormous amount of this stuff. Something like five thousand gigatonnes of carbon locked up as methane clathrate. That’s about the same as all the carbon that’s locked up in oil, gas and coal reserves.
Narration: But if temperatures rise or if the tundra melts they could be destabilised, releasing massive amounts of methane.
Dr David Etheridge: So you’d only need to release one percent of them and you have multiplied your atmosphere by about ten times concentration of methane.
Narration: And the consequences could be catastrophic. Sound far fetched? It may have happened before…
Paul: This is Scarborough to the north of Wollongong and the rocks here were laid down at a very important time in the history of the earth. To the north of here towards Sydney the rocks get progressively younger they’re going into the age of the dinosaurs. Going that way to the south they get older they go into the Palaeozoic or time of ancient life but right here is known as the Permian extinction it was a time when life on the planet was almost snuffed out and it looks like the culprit was methane.
Narration: Dr Evelyn Krull has been researching the Permian extinction
Dr Krull: We were collected samples across the Permian Triassic boundary and analysing those on our mass spectrometers.
Narration: The ratio of carbon isotopes in the rocks indicates that 250 million years ago there was a very rapid and extremely large release of methane into the atmosphere. And the fossils from before and after the extinction describe two completely different worlds.
Dr Krull: You see that these beautiful big trees were replaced by these ferns. They don’t have as much organic matter in them. So these ferns grew in a completely different environment.
Paul: So these are from a colder environment and this is a, a warmer world?
Dr Krull: That’s correct, yes. So it radically changed and these plants were not able to grow there anymore. It was essentially a chain of events that that was happening.
Narration: Just before the extinction there was a huge amount of volcanic activity in what is now Siberia. It pumped a massive amount of CO2 into the atmosphere causing significant global warming. This may have triggered what has been called The Clathrate Gun. Clathrates melt releasing vast quantities of methane into the air, feeding the global warming loop and releasing more methane….
Dr Krull: The calculations at the Permian Triassic boundary are that about two thousand four hundred gigatons of carbon were released from methane clathrates.
Narration: This resulted in massive global warming, perhaps 10 degrees or more in a couple of decades. So is it possible that the clathrate gun could fire again?
Dr Evelyn Krull: The chances are actually pretty high that this will occur again just simply because we are warming the atmosphere and we are causing shifts right now in these high latitude environments.
Narration: While it could happen again, it’s unlikely to be on the same scale as the Permian extinction. But remember earlier we said that methane levels in the atmosphere have been stable for most of the last decade? Well the latest data is of grave concern.
Dr Etheridge: In the last year and a half, methane is now increasing again in the atmosphere.
Narration: And given its history, methane is certainly a potent player in global warming…
Dr Krull: It might just come up and make everything ten times warmer than before.
Narration: We need to watch this gas very carefully. Although the chance of a methane meltdown is remote, if it happens, this hospitable planet as we know it would cease to exist…
- Reporter: Dr Paul Willis
- Producer: Ingrid Arnott
- Researcher: Holly Trueman
- Camera: Kevin May
- Sound: Steve Ravich
- Editor: Sasha Madon
Dr Andrew Smith
Senior Principal Research Scientist
Dr David Etheridge
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research
Dr Evelyn Krull
Research Scientist and Group Leader
Carbon and Nutrient Cycling
CSIRO Land & Water
CO2 Fuel . An interesting report today was published by the CSIRO concerning the use of hydrogen in producing methane gas for coal fired power stations , as a means of recycling carbon dioxide, reducing the carbon dioxide output and effectively increasing the efficiency of the Coal fired Power station and reducing carbon dioxide pollution.
It’s a interesting report ,especially as I have a prototype unit operational for use on coal fired power station in Australia’s East Coast. You can imagine how I felt when I read the headline explaining how this is a new innovative proposal after I submitted my unit back in july 2016.
The major advantage of this system of H.F.S. pty ltd is that is uses the high temperature and thermal energy of the carbon dioxide to power the catalytic reaction involving hydrogen and carbon dioxide to generate Methane gas that is fed back into the power station fuel source increase the efficiency of the system and require less coal in the first place to provide the required station power output.
The heart of the process is the patented catalyst used to combine Hydrogen and carbon dioxide together to manufacture methane. along with HFS extremely efficient Hydrogen generator technology.
This process does not eliminate the carbon dioxide output but significantly reduces its annual output and influence on the environment. Currently we are testing several mechanisms which effectively lock up the output gases which are not used in generating methane gas.
More INFORMATION will follow.
Following are the instructions for Servicing HHO System as used by trucks and cars using the HydrogenFuelSystem pty ltd system for hydrogen Generation
- One litre of water should last 15 hour s of continuous operation.
- Add Distilled water to recycling container to bring it to the full mark –8cm from top of tank.
- After 3 months of operation, the liquid should be flushed out and drained. New/Fresh solution should be used.
- For trucks and other engines using a 24 volt and 30 amp, supplying one litre of water should last between 5 to 6 hours of continuous operation.
- Concentration of 11 grams per litre equates a pH of 13.6. This is the ideal concentration of the solution in the system
- In order to make up the solution the ideal way is to make a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide by dissolving 50 grams in 150 mls of water.
- With the system running , slowly add small amounts of the concentrated solution to the recycling tank until the current flow in the system measures 20 amp. This is a time consuming process and time shhold be allowed to mix the potassium hyrdroxide solution thoroughly before adding more electrolyte . The complete operation should take 5 min to set up. Unused Potassium Hydroxide should be stored and disposed of safely through your local city AUTHORITY. Do not pour it into nito the garden or down the drain as is is very poisonous chemical and pollution should be avoided. iF YOU only make up small of electrolyte is can safely be kept for the next cycle when you flush out the system and make a fresh electrolyte .
- Once operational only water needs to be added to fill the reservoir up to the level of 8 cm from the top of the recycling container
Hydrogen Booster systems
Twin Hydrogen Booster systems as installed on C16 powered Kenworth trucks – Coogee Chemicals ( Australia)
How to avoid Poor terminal connections fault. Last week (June 2017) I checked the operation of My Hydrogen generator system and noticed that one of the terminals in the engine bay , that was delivering current through a relay unit to the Hydrogen system , had been affected by heat such that the plastic insulation was deformed as shown in the photo 1 below
I checked the temperature of every terminal in the systems as it was operating and noticed that the suspect terminal was operating at 60 celcius , while all other terminals were operating at 32 celcius.
Apart from the deformed plastic the suspect terminal looked fine and was conducting current through the relay.
I replaced the terminal and sPrayed it with lanolin lubricant to stop any future oxidation of the copper leads.
I have operated the system for the past 7 days and have consistently shown an increase in fuel economy of 1.7 km/litre, so that I am now achieving 19.5 km/litre.
I tested the terminal with a multimeter and noticed only a small increase in terminal resistance in low current flow conditions , but also noted that the internal resistance increases by over a 200 mili ohm when operating at 12 volt and 20 amp
This equates to a waste of electrical Power of P=I x I x R = 20 x 20 x 0.2 = 80 watts (80 joules per second)
The input Power = V x I = 12 x 20 = 240 watt (240 joules per second)
Wasting 80 watt for a total of 240 watt input is a massive 33%
I recommend testing the terminals with Infra red laser thermometers , to check the condtion of the electrical terminals and identify faulty terminals which could adversely affect the operation of your Hydrogen generator system.
Moral to the story is it is crucial to check and ensure that all terminals are in good condition – and preferable treated with a liquid such as with lanolin corrosion inhibitor.. Alternately with oxidation any electrolysis unit will generate heat rather that hydrogen
Can Hydrogen Injection save the diesel engine?
The greatest automotive story this century has been the “Dieselgate” conspiracy. Not only has it brought down the established regime at VW, but it’s shaken the very foundation of diesel powered transportation.
VW has already started rolling out a fix in Europe, which many of us are sceptical about, but are still “negotiating” with legislators in North America. This delay has opened the door for many lesser known technologies to offer a solution; some of them snake oil, some showing real potential.
Image Credit: www.drive.com.au —– VW emissions fix
One such technology is hydrogen injection, also commonly known as HHO.
Forty years of hydrogen injection.
Hydrogen injection has been around since the 1970s and works by injecting hydrogen into a modified, internal combustion engine, which allows the engine to burn cleaner with more power and lower emissions. Hydrogen is injected into the air prior to entering the combustion chamber. Hydrogen burns 10 times as fast as diesel and, when mixed with the diesel in the combustion chamber, accelerates the rate at which the diesel burns.
Don’t confuse hydrogen injection with hydrogen fuel cell technology, they’re vastly different:
A hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle is powered by a group of individual fuel cells, known as a fuel cell stack. The electricity generated by the fuel cell stack powers the electric motor that propels the vehicle.
Each fuel cell is an anode, a cathode and a proton exchange membrane sandwiched in between. Hydrogen, from a tank onboard the vehicle, enters into the anode side of the fuel cell. Oxygen, pulled from the air, enters the cathode side. As the hydrogen molecule encounters the membrane, a catalyst forces it to split into electron and proton. The proton moves through the fuel cell stack and the electron follows an external circuit, delivering current to the electric motor and other vehicle components. At the cathode side, the proton and electron join again, and then combine with oxygen to form the vehicle’s only tailpipe emission, water.
Image Credit: Hydrogen Injection Technologies
- Hydrogen injection systems, such as the aftermarket supplemental hydrogen on-demand system developed by Hydrogen Injection Technologies(HIT), utilize electrolysis to produce hydrogen on-demand. This hydrogen gas is synthesized from the atmosphere and released into the air-intake of any fuel based internal combustion engine. (The system is capable of NRE retrofit to any industrial engine, car, boat, RV, generator etc. up to 20 litres capacity)
Over the past 40 years several tests have been performed to investigate the impact of hydrogen injection on performance and emissions. One such test recently published by the SAE, a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine was tested for its performance and emissions in dual-fuel (hydrogen-diesel) mode.
Using an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) controlled Electronic Gas Injector, the injection timing and duration were varied on a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles.
The injection timing of the diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. By using hydrogen and diesel as a fuel emissions of Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) decrease without exhausting more smoke.
The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained was about 30% at full load for the optimized injection timing of 5° after Gas Exchange Top Dead Center (AGTDC) and for an injection duration of 90°-crank angle. The NOx emission tends to reduce to a lower value of 888 parts per million (ppm) at full-load condition for the optimized injection timing of 5° AGTDC and with an injection duration of 90° compared to neat diesel fuel operation.
Of interest in the VW saga the hydrogen supplemental fuel system developed by Hydrogen Injection Technologies has been field and lab tested (by CEE, Inc. a CARB certified laboratory) as a hardware only solution reducing NOx by over 50%.
Unlike hydrogen fuel cells HHO’s do not require a bulky pressure vessel to store the gas, as it’s a low pressure system that generates hydrogen through electrolysis of water.
As a retrofit it’s legal to run a Hydrogen Cell Generator (also called a Hydrogen Booster cell) to add HHO to the air intake, which can achieve 10% to 30% improvement in fuel consumption (Claimed).
According to Bob Boyce, the original H2O booster cell maker, the efficacy of the system relies on generating quality Hydroxy Gas. This requires a higher spin state of HHO, close to the level of deuterium to achieve consistent fuel consumption gains, and cells that can run 24/7 without heating up. Significant gains are achieved when the HHO bonds to hydro-carbon molecules, thereby completing the burn.
Moving hydrogen generation forward.
In 2014 scientists at Stanford University developed a process using a dry cell 1.5-volt battery to split water into hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature, potentially providing a low-cost method to power fuel cells in zero-emissions vehicles and buildings.
The water splitter is made from the relatively cheap and abundant metals nickel and iron. It works by sending an electric current from a single-cell AAA battery through two electrodes.
According to chemistry professor and lead researcher Hongjie Dai: “This is the first time anyone has used non-precious metal catalysts to split water at a voltage that low.” “It’s quite remarkable, because normally you need expensive metals like platinum or iridium to achieve that voltage.”
Fuel cell vehicles have been widely criticized for their high cost, the lack of infrastructure around their fuel delivery, and their low energy efficiency after accounting for the effort it takes to produce compressed hydrogen (often involving large industrial plants that use an energy-intensive process that combines steam and natural gas).
“It’s been a constant pursuit for decades to make low-cost electrocatalysts with high activity and long durability,” Dai explains. “When we found out that a nickel-based catalyst is as effective as platinum, it came as a complete surprise.”
The nickel-metal/nickel-oxide catalyst, discovered by Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, also requires significantly lower voltages to split water when compared to pure nickel or pure nickel oxide. This new technique is not quite ready for commercial production, though.
“The electrodes are fairly stable, but they do slowly decay over time,” Gong says. “The current device would probably run for days, but weeks or months would be preferable. That goal is achievable based on my most recent results.”
The next step is to improve that decay rate and to test a version that runs on electricity produced by solar energy instead of the AAA battery.
Benefits of HHO
In 2013, after eight years of research, Mark Dansie published an article on www.revolution-green.com where he outlined the following benefits:
- HHO reduces carbon monoxide up to 90%. Carbon monoxide is a fuel and HHO acts a catalyst to promote its combustion
2. HHO decreases hydrocarbons by about 10% to 90%
3. HHO drops particulate levels, especially organic particulates by 10% to 70%
4. HHO will reduce EGT (Exhaust gas temperature) from 50 to 150 degree F (depending on engine load)
5. HHO also decreases mechanical noise (was noticeable in every lab test by all the technicians but not measured)
6. HHO doesn’t always reduce NOx and in some circumstances increase it (water injection reduces it really well)
7. Only a small, and very specific amount of HHO is required to achieve significant results. If too much is supplied engine efficiency will be reduced if using electrolysis to produce the HHO
8. Horsepower is increased between 3% and 12% depending on the engine and Cetane grade of diesel used.
9. HHO improved and cleaned heavily carbonized engines. Often after weeks of running, fuel efficiency increased through this cleaning process. In one case an improvement of 13% was obtained and when the hydrogen unit was removed it still retained an 11% improvement.
10. HHO works best at elevated engine speeds. There were no benefits at idling speed.
Although empirical results indicate that on-demand hydrogen injection technology does improve efficiency and reduce emissions, hard test data under recognized European and North American automotive standards is hard to find.
I for one would like to see before-and-after tests conducted under harmonized driving standards, to substantiate the gains claimed by Dansie, Hydrogen Injection Technologies, and other interested parties.
The timing is right! With France reducing incentives for purchasing new diesel vehicles, Euro6c and real world testing looming and VW’s predicament in America, Diesel engines need a new approach to cleaning up diesel exhaust gas emissions to survive the onslaught.