Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte – handling of powerful chemicals


Handling the electrolyte Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte – handling of powerful chemicals – This electrolyser design uses potassium hydroxide solution in the electrolyser itself and fresh/ distilled  water in the water tank as the potassium hydroxide is a true catalyst which assists the electrolysis process but does not get used up in the reaction. The Oxidation / Reduction Potential of Potassium Hydroxide is lowest of all Suitable electrolytes , so that the maximum volume of Hydrogen and oxygen gas can be produced using Battery voltage.

Potassium hydroxide is a strong caustic material and considerable care needs to be taken when preparing it.   These  instructions should be followed carefully in every respect when handling potassium hydroxide and preparing stainless steel for use in an electrolyser:

Mixing Potassium Hydroxide Solution
Potassium hydroxide is also known as “caustic potash” and it is highly caustic.   Consequently, it needs to be handled carefully and kept away from contact with skin, and even more importantly, eyes.   If any splashes come in contact with you, it is very important indeed that the affected area be immediately rinsed off with large amounts of running water and if necessary, the use of vinegar which is s week acid id used to neutralize the caustic liquid

This electrolyser design requires you to make up a weak solution of potassium hydroxide.   This is done by adding small amounts of the potassium hydroxide to distilled water held in a plastic container.   The container must not be glass as most glass is unable to handle the large amount of heat produced by mixing Potassium Hydroxide with water… Strongly Exothermic dissolution reaction
Potassium hydroxide, also called KOH or “Caustic Potash”, can be bought in small quantities from soap making supply outlets.   While Potassium hydroxide is the very best electrolyte, it needs to be treated with care:

Always store it in a sturdy, air-tight container which is clearly labelled “DANGER! – Potassium Hydroxide”.   Keep the container in a safe place, where it can’t be reached by children, pets or people who won’t take any notice of the label.   If your supply of KOH is delivered in a strong plastic bag, then once you open the bag, you should transfer all its contents to sturdy, air-tight, plastic storage containers, which you can open and close without risking spilling the contents.   Hardware stores sell large plastic buckets with air tight lids that can be used for this purpose.

When working with dry KOH flakes or granules, wear safety goggles, rubber gloves, a long sleeved shirt, socks and long trousers.   Also, don’t wear your favorite clothes when handling KOH solution as it is not the best thing to get on clothes.   It is also no harm to wear a face mask which covers your mouth and nose.   If you are mixing solid KOH with water, always add the KOH to the water, and not the other way round, and use a plastic container for the mixing, preferably one which has double the capacity of the finished mixture.   The mixing should be done in a well-ventilated area which is not draughty as air currents can blow the dry KOH around.

When mixing the electrolyte, never use warm water.   The water should be cool because the chemical reaction between the water and the KOH generates a good deal of heat.   If possible, place the mixing container in a larger container filled with cold water, as that will help to keep the temperature down, and if your mixture should “boil over” it will contain the spillage.   Add only a small amount of KOH at a time, stirring continuously, and if you stop stirring for any reason, put the lids back on all containers.

If, in spite of all precautions, you get some KOH solution on your skin, wash it off with plenty of running cold water and apply some vinegar to the skin.   Vinegar is acidic, and will help balance out the alkalinity of the KOH.   You can use lemon juice if you don’t have vinegar to hand – but it is always recommended to keep a bottle of vinegar handy.

Electrolysis water Reduction of water to hydrogen/oxygen


Electrolysis water

Electolysis of water

Electolysis-of-water (1)

The “Neutral Plate” fairy tale


Neutral plate construction

For years I have been hearing the garbage of the innovative neutral  plate  system of making HHO and how it is so good it will allow a vehicle to run totally on water…. Absolute garbage. Lets look at some of these statements as trump would say – the fake news of HHO .

Firstly I am a Traditional  Research Scientist, Theoretical  Physicist,  Chemist, Engineer, teacher and University researcher .  I hold multiple University Qualifications and years of experience Teaching and University research..  I do not believe in the tooth fairy , the Easter Bunny or Free energy.

There is no such thing as HHO . HHO is water  H20. Water is extremely stable and required large amounts of energy to produce Hydrogen and oxygen gas .   Monatomic hydrogen cannot and will not exist and monatomic oxygen cannot exist.. you don’t want it to exist as it would violently react with anything it came into contact with resulting with your demise.

Electrolysis separates water into hydrogen and oxygen gas… that’s it.

FARADAYS LAW EXPLAINS  how much hydrogen and oxygen gas you will collect from electrolysis of water using 1 amp of current ( 1 amp = 6023000000000000000 electrons per second ).  If you are getting more than this fixed amount  then you are most likely producing steam …. If you want steam , buy a kettle , its cheaper.

All the Bullshit about over unity devices are made by people who  have no scientific background and listening to the bullshit , I doubt they even finished primary school…. Yet they talk about parahydrogen and orthohydrogen  , as well as ranting about resonance devices……

Bullshit artists like this use Scientific mumbo jumbo to sound intelligent and fool the scientifically uneducated members of our society.  That’s where  the problem originates .  Our pathetic education system from Primary to secondary school does a pathetic job in educating and promoting education in Science  and Mathematics to such an extent that anyone who knows a mixture of scientific terminology and “Pseudo scientific Mumbo Jumbo”  can appear intelligent and  convincing to the uneducated  masses.

Neutral plates do not exist.

The oxidation / reduction potential or voltage required to decompose water into hydrogen / oxygen mixture, together with the voltage drop from the internal resistance of water , adds up to approx. 2.2 volts.  Neutral plates aims to break down the 13.8 voltage applied into 6 steps of 2.2 volts .  However having a hole in the plates to allow water and gas flow , results in a short circuit where the plates are not able to break down the applied voltage into 2.2 volt steps, but rather require a much =larger applied voltage to conduct  between the one anode and one cathode…. Massive voltage of 110 is often used . Only one cell exists with the neutral plates , with massive over voltage = 110 – 2.2 = 107.8 volts……. Voltage is equivalent to energy and with so much energy wasted  you end up boiling water…… buy a kettle its cheaper

Neutral plates don’t and cant work.  Cells overheat, stainless steel corrodes and the cells self destruct

Hydrogen generation patent data base- [US Patent & Trademark Office, Patent Full Text and Image Database]




Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production could revolutionize alternative energy market Virginia Tech


Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production could revolutionize alternative energy market      Researchers have discovered a way to extract large quantities of hydrogen from any plant, a breakthrough that has the potential to bring a low-cost, environmentally friendly fuel source to the world.

A team of Virginia Tech researchers has discovered a way to extract large quantities of hydrogen from any plant, a breakthrough that has the potential to bring a low-cost, environmentally friendly fuel source to the world.

“Our new process could help end our dependence on fossil fuels,” said Y.H. Percival Zhang, an associate professor of biological systems engineering in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the College of Engineering. “Hydrogen is one of the most important biofuels of the future.”

Zhang and his team have succeeded in using xylose, the most abundant simple plant sugar, to produce a large quantity of hydrogen that previously was attainable only in theory. Zhang’s method can be performed using any source of biomass.

The discovery is a featured editor’s choice in an online version of the chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie, International Edition.

Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production  this new environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen utilizes renewable natural resources, releases almost no zero greenhouse gasses, and does not require costly or heavy metals. Previous methods to produce hydrogen are expensive and create greenhouse gases.

The U.S. Department of Energy says that hydrogen fuel has the potential to dramatically reduce reliance of fossil fuels and automobile manufactures are aggressively trying to develop vehicles that run on hydrogen fuel cells. Unlike gas-powered engines that spew out pollutants, the only byproduct of hydrogen fuel is water. Zhang’s discovery opens the door to an inexpensive, renewable source of hydrogen.

Jonathan R. Mielenz, group leader of the bioscience and technology biosciences division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who is familiar with Zhang’s work but not affiliated with this project, said this discovery has the potential to have a major impact on alternative energy production.

“The key to this exciting development is that Zhang is using the second most prevalent sugar in plants to produce this hydrogen,” he said. “This amounts to a significant additional benefit to hydrogen production and it reduces the overall cost of producing hydrogen from biomass.”

Mielenz said Zhang’s process could find its way to the marketplace as quickly as three years if the technology is available. Zhang said when it does become commercially available, it has the possibility of making an enormous impact.

“The potential for profit and environmental benefits are why so many automobile, oil, and energy companies are working on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as the transportation of the future,” Zhang said. “Many people believe we will enter the hydrogen economy soon, with a market capacity of at least $1 trillion in the United States alone.”

Obstacles to commercial production of hydrogen gas from biomass previously included the high cost of the processes used and the relatively low quantity of the end product.

But Zhang thinks he has found the answers to those problems.

Breakthrough hydrogen fuel production   For seven years, Zhang’s team has been focused on finding non-traditional ways to produce high-yield hydrogen at low cost, specifically researching enzyme combinations, discovering novel enzymes, and engineering enzymes with desirable properties.

The team liberates the high-purity hydrogen under mild reaction conditions at 122 degree Fahrenheit and normal atmospheric pressure. The biocatalysts used to release the hydrogen are a group of enzymes artificially isolated from different microorganisms that thrive at extreme temperatures, some of which could grow at around the boiling point of water.

The researchers chose to use xylose, which comprises as much as 30 percent of plant cell walls. Despite its abundance, the use of xylose for releasing hydrogen has been limited. The natural or engineered microorganisms that most scientists use in their experiments cannot produce hydrogen in high yield because these microorganisms grow and reproduce instead of splitting water molecules to yield pure hydrogen.

To liberate the hydrogen, Virginia Tech scientists separated a number of enzymes from their native microorganisms to create a customized enzyme cocktail that does not occur in nature. The enzymes, when combined with xylose and a polyphosphate, liberate the unprecedentedly high volume of hydrogen from xylose, resulting in the production of about three times as much hydrogen as other hydrogen-producing microorganisms.

The energy stored in xylose splits water molecules, yielding high-purity hydrogen that can be directly utilized by proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Even more appealing, this reaction occurs at low temperatures, generating hydrogen energy that is greater than the chemical energy stored in xylose and the polyphosphate. This results in an energy efficiency of more than 100 percent — a net energy gain. That means that low-temperature waste heat can be used to produce high-quality chemical energy hydrogen for the first time. Other processes that convert sugar into biofuels such as ethanol and butanol always have energy efficiencies of less than 100 percent, resulting in an energy penalty.

In his previous research, Zhang used enzymes to produce hydrogen from starch, but the reaction required a food source that made the process too costly for mass production.

The commercial market for hydrogen gas is now around $100 billion for hydrogen produced from natural gas, which is expensive to manufacture and generates a large amount of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Industry most often uses hydrogen to manufacture ammonia for fertilizers and to refine petrochemicals, but an inexpensive, plentiful green hydrogen source can rapidly change that market.

“It really doesn’t make sense to use non-renewable natural resources to produce hydrogen,” Zhang said. “We think this discovery is a game-changer in the world of alternative energy.”

Support for the current research comes from the Department of Biological Systems Engineering at Virginia Tech. Additional resources were contributed by the Shell GameChanger Program, the Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences’ Biodesign and Bioprocessing Research Center, and the U.S. Department of Energy BioEnergy Science Center, along with the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. The lead author of the article, Julia S. Martin Del Campo, who works in Zhang’s lab, received her Ph.D. grant from the Mexican Council of Science and Technology.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Virginia Tech. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Julia S. Martín del Campo, Joseph Rollin, Suwan Myung, You Chun, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Rodrigo Patiño, Michael WW Adams, Y.-H. Percival Zhang. High-Yield Production of Dihydrogen from Xylose by Using a Synthetic Enzyme Cascade in a Cell-Free System. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2013; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201300766

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Calculation of maximum Hydrogen output



-How to calculate the amount of Hydrogen (HHO) that a generator can produce?


Generation of Hydrogen is based on electrolysis, which is governed by the laws of physics. This process was studied almost 200 years ago by Michael Faraday, who subsequently published “Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis”.

The laws state that an electrolysis cell, operating at a certain current (amps) will produce a known amount of HHO.

The two main considerations are the number of electrode plates and the actual ‘active’ surface area. The active area is the surface area of the plates minus the area of the gaskets.

For example, if a Gen 10 hfs generator has cell figuration plate area of 2000 square cm  ( Gen 15, Gen 20 and Gen 30 systems have increased plate area configuration)

Michael Faraday also demonstrated that electrolysis cells can support up to 0.084 amps per square cm without overheating. This is the standard used to design a HHO generator.
Therefore, the 2000 square cm cell can support up to 168 amps of current which is far in excess of a cars alternator / battery capacity.

We recommend no more  than 20 amp output

The number of electrolysis cells  is also very important. Too few and the generator will have poor HHO production and overheat. Too many Cells  and the generator may not work at all.

For 12 volt vehicles, the ideal number of electrolysis cells within the generator is 6 , so as to use up all of the available voltage

As a mathematical simplification of Faraday’s laws, a HFS Generator will produce 90 ml/minute of HHO per 1 amp of current

So, the generator in our example will have a maximum output of 1.8 LPM (90 ml x 20 amps)

Effect of HHO on Emissions


Adding HHO to an internal combustion engine, results in a faster, more complete combustion of the existing fuel. Faster and more thorough combustion means that more energy is transferred mechanically to the engine, instead of wasted heat through the exhaust. This has a positive impact not only on power and fuel economy, but also in emissions (as exemplified in the test report by *Eurofins below). The much faster flame propagation speed of hydrogen is responsible for this and is often compared to a giant “spark plug” in the engine that ignites all the combustible fuel.

In summary, vehicle emissions are mostly comprised of 5 gases (the 6th is applicable to diesel fueled engines):
1. HC
2. NOx
3. O2
4. CO
5. CO2
6. PM

1. HC – Hydro Carbons are essentially unburned particles of fuel that are passed through the entire engine, through the exhaust and into the atmosphere. This is the gas that accounts for smog in our cities. Hydrocarbons are typically reduced by 30-40%.

2. NOx – Nitrogen monoxide and additional oxides are responsible for the “acid rain” pollution that is apparent in metro areas such as Los Angeles. NOx emissions are very strongly related to combustion temperature. As combustion temperatures exceeds 1527C (2870F), oxides of nitrogen are formed, and any increases in temperature will result in substantially higher emissions. When HHO is added to the engine, the resultant cooler combustion temperature helps lower this particular nauseous gas. Reductions of 20-25% are common in diesel engines. Typical reductions in gasoline vehicles are 50%. Results as great as 95% been reported in lean burning applications such as highly tuned gasoline and natural gas engines seeking large increases in fuel economy.

3. O2 – Oxygen is NON-POLUTING and necessary for our existence. Note the significant increase of clean oxygen as measured by 5-gas analyzers.

4. CO – Carbon Monoxide. This clear, odorless yet deadly gas gets reduced in the range of 25-50%.

5. CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, responsible for the “green house” effect on our planet is typically decreased by 40-60%

6. PM – Particulate Matter is the “solid particles and liquid droplets” in the exhaust of diesel engines, more commonly referred to as “soot”. As HHO is directly responsible for a more complete combustion, this emission is drastically reduced. 70-80% reductions are commonplace, with frequent reports of 90%+.

Effect of Hydrogen HHO on EmissionsEffect of Hydrogen HHO on Emissions

*Eurofins is an international group of laboratories headquartered in Luxembourg, providing testing and support services to the pharmaceutical, food, environmental and consumer products industries and to governments.

Engines using Hydrogen as primary fuel



-Ok, your hydrogen supplement systems are very intriguing. But why settle for an increase in your petrol economy, why not “over engineer” your car’s system and generate enough HHO to run completely on HHO gas, using no petrol at all. Is that possible?


-Creating enough HHO to act as the primary fuel for a vehicle would require extreme amounts of electrical current (much much more than the charging system could provide). Even if this were possible, energy is lost upon every conversion step, since no energy conversion can be 100% efficient.

These losses occur during the combustion process that makes mechanical energy, then the alternator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and finally, the HHO system that converts electricity into chemical energy.

This theoretical system would violate the first law of thermodynamics because not only is it a perpetual motion machine, but would need to create energy sufficient enough to power the vehicle as it travels.

Constant Current Pulse Width Modulator CCPWM



-Most of CCPWMs need cooling fans. Why does your CCPWM not have a cooling fan? Is the CCPWM hot when working?


-Most PWM use a low quality FET to control the current, and it gets hot. So you get a poor design, added cost from all the heat sink, assembly cost, $0.49 very low quality computer fan, not intended for vibration and automotive use etc.

We use a proper, efficient FET that runs 5C above ambient temp. No moving parts, better performance, lower cost, higher reliability

Hydrogen buildup in “on demand” generators



-If I have my car on but not running will the gas build up in my car?


-If wired correctly, NO, there will be no gas build up.

Ideally you connect to a spot that is only on when the engine is running. Often this spot exists in the fuse box, or your fuel pump is wired this way. Tap into that wire to activate the relay that sends electrical power to your hydrogen generator.  When the vehicle engine stops the relay is switched off and power supply to the hydrogen generator is switched off.