Calculation of maximum Hydrogen output

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Question:

-How to calculate the amount of Hydrogen (HHO) that a generator can produce?

Answer:

Generation of Hydrogen is based on electrolysis, which is governed by the laws of physics. This process was studied almost 200 years ago by Michael Faraday, who subsequently published “Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis”.

The laws state that an electrolysis cell, operating at a certain current (amps) will produce a known amount of HHO.

The two main considerations are the number of electrode plates and the actual ‘active’ surface area. The active area is the surface area of the plates minus the area of the gaskets.

For example, if a Gen 10 hfs generator has cell figuration plate area of 2000 square cm  ( Gen 15, Gen 20 and Gen 30 systems have increased plate area configuration)

Michael Faraday also demonstrated that electrolysis cells can support up to 0.084 amps per square cm without overheating. This is the standard used to design a HHO generator.
Therefore, the 2000 square cm cell can support up to 168 amps of current which is far in excess of a cars alternator / battery capacity.

We recommend no more  than 20 amp output

The number of electrolysis cells  is also very important. Too few and the generator will have poor HHO production and overheat. Too many Cells  and the generator may not work at all.

For 12 volt vehicles, the ideal number of electrolysis cells within the generator is 6 , so as to use up all of the available voltage

As a mathematical simplification of Faraday’s laws, a HFS Generator will produce 90 ml/minute of HHO per 1 amp of current

So, the generator in our example will have a maximum output of 1.8 LPM (90 ml x 20 amps)

Effect of HHO on Emissions

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Adding HHO to an internal combustion engine, results in a faster, more complete combustion of the existing fuel. Faster and more thorough combustion means that more energy is transferred mechanically to the engine, instead of wasted heat through the exhaust. This has a positive impact not only on power and fuel economy, but also in emissions (as exemplified in the test report by *Eurofins below). The much faster flame propagation speed of hydrogen is responsible for this and is often compared to a giant “spark plug” in the engine that ignites all the combustible fuel.

In summary, vehicle emissions are mostly comprised of 5 gases (the 6th is applicable to diesel fueled engines):
1. HC
2. NOx
3. O2
4. CO
5. CO2
6. PM

1. HC – Hydro Carbons are essentially unburned particles of fuel that are passed through the entire engine, through the exhaust and into the atmosphere. This is the gas that accounts for smog in our cities. Hydrocarbons are typically reduced by 30-40%.

2. NOx – Nitrogen monoxide and additional oxides are responsible for the “acid rain” pollution that is apparent in metro areas such as Los Angeles. NOx emissions are very strongly related to combustion temperature. As combustion temperatures exceeds 1527C (2870F), oxides of nitrogen are formed, and any increases in temperature will result in substantially higher emissions. When HHO is added to the engine, the resultant cooler combustion temperature helps lower this particular nauseous gas. Reductions of 20-25% are common in diesel engines. Typical reductions in gasoline vehicles are 50%. Results as great as 95% been reported in lean burning applications such as highly tuned gasoline and natural gas engines seeking large increases in fuel economy.

3. O2 – Oxygen is NON-POLUTING and necessary for our existence. Note the significant increase of clean oxygen as measured by 5-gas analyzers.

4. CO – Carbon Monoxide. This clear, odorless yet deadly gas gets reduced in the range of 25-50%.

5. CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, responsible for the “green house” effect on our planet is typically decreased by 40-60%

6. PM – Particulate Matter is the “solid particles and liquid droplets” in the exhaust of diesel engines, more commonly referred to as “soot”. As HHO is directly responsible for a more complete combustion, this emission is drastically reduced. 70-80% reductions are commonplace, with frequent reports of 90%+.

Effect of Hydrogen HHO on EmissionsEffect of Hydrogen HHO on Emissions

*Eurofins is an international group of laboratories headquartered in Luxembourg, providing testing and support services to the pharmaceutical, food, environmental and consumer products industries and to governments.

Engines using Hydrogen as primary fuel

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Question:

-Ok, your hydrogen supplement systems are very intriguing. But why settle for an increase in your petrol economy, why not “over engineer” your car’s system and generate enough HHO to run completely on HHO gas, using no petrol at all. Is that possible?

Answer:

-Creating enough HHO to act as the primary fuel for a vehicle would require extreme amounts of electrical current (much much more than the charging system could provide). Even if this were possible, energy is lost upon every conversion step, since no energy conversion can be 100% efficient.

These losses occur during the combustion process that makes mechanical energy, then the alternator that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and finally, the HHO system that converts electricity into chemical energy.

This theoretical system would violate the first law of thermodynamics because not only is it a perpetual motion machine, but would need to create energy sufficient enough to power the vehicle as it travels.

Constant Current Pulse Width Modulator CCPWM

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Question:

-Most of CCPWMs need cooling fans. Why does your CCPWM not have a cooling fan? Is the CCPWM hot when working?

Answer:

-Most PWM use a low quality FET to control the current, and it gets hot. So you get a poor design, added cost from all the heat sink, assembly cost, $0.49 very low quality computer fan, not intended for vibration and automotive use etc.

We use a proper, efficient FET that runs 5C above ambient temp. No moving parts, better performance, lower cost, higher reliability

Hydrogen buildup in “on demand” generators

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Question:

-If I have my car on but not running will the gas build up in my car?

Answer:

-If wired correctly, NO, there will be no gas build up.

Ideally you connect to a spot that is only on when the engine is running. Often this spot exists in the fuse box, or your fuel pump is wired this way. Tap into that wire to activate the relay that sends electrical power to your hydrogen generator.  When the vehicle engine stops the relay is switched off and power supply to the hydrogen generator is switched off.

HOW IT WORKS- HYdrogen on demand systems

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How hydrogen improves combustion

The modern diesel internal combustion engines burns approximately 70% of diesel fuel in the combustion process. The other 30% turns into unburned hydrocarbons that clog up the DPF and EGRs while the remainder contaminates the oil, and blows out the stack producing pollution and smog. Hydrogen burns 14-times faster than diesel and expands by 20,000-times its volume. When introduced via a delivery line on the vacuum side of the turbo, the hydrogen excites the diesel molecules, increasing the speed of the burn and therefore burning more of the diesel fuel.

 

How does this extend DPF regen cycles and EGR replacements?

Simply put, by burning more of the fuel, there is less soot left over. By reducing the quantity of soot there is less for the DPF to filter and less to clog up the EGR valve

You’re right to ask, “Why does this work?” when you know other such “solutions” haven’t worked in the past.

While it’s fairly easy to create a hydrogen injection system that works some of the time, the trick has always been to make a RELIABLE hydrogen injection system that works all of the time. “Hydrogen fuel systems” has used science and engineering, along with manufacturing best practices to achieve the balance required. However, although “Hydrogen fuel systems” knew they had the long sought after solution, they knew it would take quantification, verification and certification in order to prove it to the world.

Do you think, “It’s too good to be true; if it worked this well, everyone would have one.”?

It’s taken decades for the public and institutions to swing behind the long-proven idea that smoking is bad for you. Just because something is good, doesn’t mean that everyone adopts it quickly. There are a lot of bogus claims and underperforming products out there. It’s going to take time for the vast majority of companies to get behind this. In the mean time, those who do adopt this technology will have a definite, measurable advantage over their competition.

Are you concerned about OEM endorsement?

“Hydrogen fuel systems” is working with an OEM, however we do not yet have an OEM endorsement. The automotive industry is a conservative one. Think back to how long it was before Halogen lights were allowed on Australian cars. The same goes for radial tires. An OEM endorsement is coming, but not yet.

We understand downtime is your worst enemy and would not put you in a position where you have to pay out of pocket for an issue our product caused.

How much is this going to cost you?

With our leasing plan your will see savings significantly higher than your lease payments very soon. In reality this will cost you nothing. At 10% savings of fuel used you will make a profit after the first few months.    Contact us today to find out how much you could be saving tomorrow.

Hydrogen fuel systems for shipping

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Discussions  and planning are now underway for installation of Hydrobooster systems on shipping out of Mumbai , India.  These systems will be manufactured at Broens Industries, Ingleburn , Sydney, Australia and will deliver fuel savings as well as increasing the power output of the diesel powered engines.  As well as increasing the power output it will also reduce the emissions of polluting particular matter  and unburnt / partly burnt diesel hydrocarbon .   Systems will be based on the highly efficient Gen 20 design a used to power trucks ,  These systems will be powered by  a 10 kVA generator delivering 83 Litres of hydrogen per minute..

More information will become available/ posted in coming weeks

Hydrogen generator design now available for cleaning out engines

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New 240 volt 5 amp system design available for use as a carbon cleaner on existing  internal combustion engines.  HHO carbon clean machine is the newest achievement with HHO gas and HHO agent cleaning at the same time.its innovative design and updated spare parts can increase the machine working efficiency to reach safer operation.

How Amazing Machine?

  • improve engine power by 20%,reduce emissions by 72%
  • Flush sensors, extend the life of the oxygen sensor
  • Cleaning ternary catalytic and can be used for a long time.
  • Clean conbustion chamber and exhaust pipe,prolong engine overhaul period and inspection.

Experimental investigations of the hydrogen addition effects on diesel engine performance

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I Mirica1 , C Pana1 , N Negurescu1 , A Cernat1 and C Nutu2

1 Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermical and Frigorific Equipment Department, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania 2 Automotive Engineering Department, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania

E-mail: cernatalex@yahoo.com, cernatt@gmail.com

Abstract. In the global content regarding the impact on the environmental of the gases emissions resulted from the fossil fuels combustion, an interest aspect discussed on the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties from the 2015 Paris Climate Conference and the gradual diminution of the worldwide oil reserves contribute to the necessity of searching of alternative energy from durable and renewable resources. At the use of hydrogen as addition in air to diesel engine, the level of CO, HC and smoke from the exhaust gases will decrease due to the improvement of the combustion process. At low and medium partial loads and low hydrogen energetic ratios used the NOX emission level can decrease comparative to classic diesel engine. The hydrogen use as fuel for diesel engine leads to the improving of the energetic and emissions performance of the engine due to combustion improvement and reduction of carbon content. The paper presents, in a comparative way, results of the experimental researches carried on a truck compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel fuel and with hydrogen diesel fuel and hydrogen as addition in air at different engine operation regimes. The results obtained during experimental investigations show better energetic and pollution performance of the engine fuelled with hydrogen as addition in air comparative to classic engine. The influences of hydrogen addition on engine operation are shown. 1. Introduction A special attention is give to reduction of internal combustion engine pollutant emissions (hydrocarbons HC, carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxide NOX, particles PM and smoke) and of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2). Nowadays, a special legislation is promoted to limit the pollutants emissions by apply active and passive new methods for their reduction. The applied strategy’s for environmental pollution reduction makes the researches to focus on alternative fuel use [1], [2], [3] like hydrogen use. Hydrogen has a higher resistance to autoignition, fact that restrain its use as unique fuel at diesel engine, an ignition source being necessary [4], [5], [6], [7]. One recommended method for hydrogen use at diesel engines is the diesel gas method. Hydrogen is injected into the inlet manifold, the higher homogeneity air-hydrogen mixture being ignited by a flame initiated by autoignition of the diesel fuel injected inside the cylinder. Experimental research’s developed for compression ignition engine fuelled with hydrogen and diesel fuel by this method show same specific aspects comparative to diesel fuel fuelled engine. Thus, at the hydrogen diesel engine fuelling appear effects on combustion parameters in engine cylinder and on engine energetic performance: increase of maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate [8], [9], increase of the heat release maximum rate [10]; reduction of combustion duration [10]; power per litre increase [11]; increase of 7th International Conference on Advanced Concepts in Mechanical Engineering IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 147 (2016) 012121 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/147/1/012121 Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd 1 indicated thermal efficiency at partial loads [12]; reduction of energetic consumption [10], [12]. At engine running at the fuelling with hydrogen and diesel fuel, the CO, HC and smoke emissions has a much lower level comparative to diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel due to improvement of the combustion, a lower carbon content in air-fuel mixture and a higher homogeneity of air-hydrogen mixture [10], [11], [12]; slightly increase of the CO2 emission level [12]. The level of the NOX emission increases at the rise of the hydrogen addition, especially at large engine load because the incylinder gases temperature is much higher comparative to the NOX formation temperature [12, 14]. N. Saravanan [8], Younkins M. [12] and Tomita [13] show that the NOX emissions level decreases with almost 14% at hydrogen fuelling in relative low additions (up till 15% energetically substitution of diesel fuel) at small engine loads, due to a shorter duration in which the high temperature reached inside the engine cylinder exists, the NOX emissions forming being avoided. At big hydrogen additions, the level of NOX emissions increases, comparative to the emissions level of a standard engine, because of the duration of maintaining high temperatures inside the cylinder [13, 14]. In the paper are presented results of experimental research developed on a truck diesel engine, fuelled with hydrogen additions, at 55% load and 1450 rev/min speed regime.

 

4. Conclusions

The experimental investigations carried on a diesel engine dual fuelled with hydrogen by intake manifold injection at the regime of 55% load, 1450 rev/min and different energetic substitute ratios in the area of 1.1%…3.9% leads to the formulation of the following main conclusions: due to higher hydrogen burning velocity the heat release rate increases with the rise of the hydrogen cycle dose and the registered values are reached sooner per cycle comparative to diesel fuelling; hydrogen use in dual fuel operation leads to a decrease of almost 10% in terms of brake specific energetic consumption (BSEC) comparative to standard diesel engine; at the hydrogen-diesel oil dual fuelling operation mode NOX emissions level decreases with 5.5% comparative to diesel engine for a 3.9% percent of substitute ratio of diesel fuel by hydrogen; comparative to classic engine, the HC and smoke emissions level decreases at the hydrogen addition increase; the tendency of variation experimentally registered at the reduction of the smoke emission from the exhaust gases is explained by the combined effect of pressure and temperature of in-cylinder gases; soot quantity formed inside the engine cylinder decreases at the increase of hydrogen quantity, for all substitute ratios, the reduction being around 53% at the maximum hydrogen rate; at dual fuelling, higher hydrogen quantity accelerate the soot oxidation process comparative to lower hydrogen quantities; the CO and CO2 emissions register continuous reduction tendency for all domain of substitute ratios, with values under the reference regime, xc=0; hydrogen in addition at diesel fuel is a promising alternative fuel for diesel engines; the application of diesel-gas method for use of hydrogen in addition at diesel fuel don’t require major modifications of the engine design.

Effect of hydrogen and gasoline fuel blend on the performance of SI engine

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This paper presents the effects of introducing hydrogen with gasoline on the engine performance like power, torque and efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine. Hydrogen is found to be one of the important energy substitutes of the future era. Hydrogen as a renewable energy source provides the potential for a sustainable development, particularly in the automotive and energy storing sector. Hydrogen driven vehicles reduce both local as well as global emissions. By changing the amount of hydrogen percentage with gasoline, the data has been recorded and analyzed to achieve the economical blend percentage of hydrogen and gasoline to obtain the best performance of the SI engine.

INTRODUCTION

Hydrogen is the fuel of the future. It is an energy carrier that can be used in internal combustion (IC) engines producing no greenhouse gas emissions virtually when combusted with oxygen. The only emission is water vapor. It is a carbon-free energy carrier, and likely to play an important role in a world with severe constraints on greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen has extremely wide ignition limits. This allows a spark ignition engine to operate on hydrogen with very little throttling. Stoichiometric hydrogen air mixture burns seven times as fast as the corresponding gasoline air mixture. This gives great advantage in IC engines, leading to higher engine speeds and greater thermal efficiency (Ganeshan, 2007). The potential of using hydrogen for small horsepower SI engines was evaluated and compared with compressed natural gas (CNG). Another study dealt on certain drawbacks of hydrogen fuelled SI engines, such as high NOx emission and small power output to determine the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuelled SI engines. The design features and the current operational limitations associated with the hydrogen fuelled SI engines were reviewed (Karim, 2000). The onset of knock in hydrogen fuelled SI engine applications was investigated (Li and Karim, 2004). Several problems of the injectors (leakage, unequal response time-opening delay and poor durability) as available then, have mostly been solved nowadays due to the worldwide increased research on gaseous injection systems (natural gas, LPG, etc). To run a hydrogen engine, the mixture formation of air and hydrogen need not to be controlled precisely (Das, 1990). Consequently, simple systems such as an external mixture system with a gas carburetor can be used for the fuel supply. This system is firstly implemented on the tested engine. However, combustion process can be controlled completely only with an injection system and an electronic control unit (electronic management system), as used for all new gasoline engines. Hence, the carburetor is discarded to be replaced by a gas injection system in the inlet manifold, allowing multi-point *Corresponding author. Email: raviranjan1611@gmail.com. 138 J. Pet. Technol. Altern. Fuels Figure 1. Experimental setup. Table 1. Specifications of the test engine. Items Engine (gasoline) Mark 231H Engine type Four stroke, Three cylinder Bore (mm) 66.5 Stroke (mm) 72 Compression ratio 9.2/1 Fuel system Petrol (MPFI) cooling Water cooled Engine working temperature (°C) 120 sequential injection of the gaseous hydrogen fuel in each inlet channel just before the inlet valve. For gaseous fuels, an additional and important advantage is better resistance to backfire (explosion of the air/fuel mixture in the inlet manifold) (Sorusbay and Veziroglu, 1988; Kondo et al.,1996; Lee et al., 1995; Guo et al., 1999). The danger of backfire is eliminated with a sequential timed multipoint injection of hydrogen and the corresponding electronic management system. As a result, the power output of the engine is increased. The optimization of the engine parameters was studied. The ignition timing has a strong influence on efficiency of the engine; it should be regulated adequately as a function of the mixture richness (Verhelst and Sierens, 2001). Moderate engine performance is obtained in hydrogen combustion with a special injector that is equipped with a leak structure and a glow plug (Ikegami et al., 1982). The smoke emission reduces from 4.8 BSN to 0.3 BSN with simultaneous reduction of NOX when using the hydrogen in dual fuel mode. Braking thermal efficiency increases from around 23.59 to 29% with optimized injection starting and duration. The emission such as CO, CO2 and HC is reduced drastically. The NOX emission decreases from 6.14 g/kWh to 3.14 g/kW-h at full load. The reduction is due to efficient combustion resulting from the hydrogen combustion (Sarvanan et al., 2007). The limit of flammability of hydrogen varies from an equivalence ratio of 0.1 to 7.1; hence the engine can be operated with a wide range of air fuel ratio (Yi et al., 2000). Hydrogen fuelled engine efficiency is superior to gasoline engine, especially at small partial loads operating conditions, due to a better combustion process and load qualitative adjustment method. The level of pollutant emissions decreases at the hydrogen fuelling. The exhaust gases do not contain CO2 or lots of polluting substances provided by classic engines such as CO, HC, particles and lead compounds (Negurescu et al., 2012). Tyagi and Ranjan (2013) minimize exhaust pollutant by heating catalytic converter. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of the gasoline-hydrogen blended fuel on engine power and torque, to quantify engine performance and to find the best hydrogen and gasoline fuel blend ratio for SI engines.

Conclusion

Combustion characteristics of a hydrogen fueled SI engine with gasoline-hydrogen blends under seven different ignition timings, 70% wide open throttle(WOT) and lean mixture condition were investigated, and the important results were drawn. The power output of the engine is increased without danger of backfire, with a timed multiport fuel injection system of hydrogen and the corresponding electronic management system. The optimization of the engine parameters were discussed in terms of power output, brake mean effective pressure, torque output and effective thermal efficiency. The injection of hydrogen at the beginning of the compression stroke has shown smooth engine running at stoichiometric air fuel ratio without abnormal burning. The advantage of lean mixtures to operate at low load conditions without a throttle valve is found to be valid. For specific ignition timing, the brake mean effective pressure and the effective thermal efficiency increased while the combustion durations decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in gasoline hydrogen blend. There is a significant influence of Ignition timing on engine performance and combustion. With the decrease in time intervals from the ending of fuel injection to the ignition start, brake mean effective pressure and effective thermal efficiency increased

REFERENCES

Das LM (1990). Fuel induction techniques for a hydrogen operated engine. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 15:823-42. Ganeshan V (2007). Internal Combustion engines: third edition, Tata McGraw-hill, P. 212. Guo LS, Lu HB, Li JD (1999). A hydrogen injection system with solenoid valves for a four-cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 24:377-382.