Viewing posts categorised under: Uncategorized

Methane gas second most abundant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.




The second most abundant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.


Dr Graham Phillips Introduction: Carbon dioxide is synonymous with climate change but what about the other greenhouses gases that we hear little about. Dr Paul Willis reports on a gas that is 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, and unleashed could have devastating consequences.

Narration: We know that global warming is complex.

Dr Evelyn Krull: We are not looking at the whole picture.

Narration: Perhaps we’re missing something important.

Dr Andrew Smith: Increased in concentration by something like two hundred and fifty percent.

Narration: A climate player with a murky past

Dr David Etheridge: warming the globe for very long periods.

Dr Paul Willis: When it comes to climate change, carbon dioxide gets all the attention, but these cows here are producing a greenhouse gas that is more potent than carbon dioxide. It’s a gas that’s been implicated in the greatest mass extinction of all time, and we’re pumping it out at an ever increasing rate.

Dr Etheridge: It has some fairly complex roles in our climate and in the chemistry of the atmosphere.

Dr Smith: It is an important player.

Narration: It’s methane, the forgotten greenhouse gas. And it’s a gas that’s surrounded in myths. Contrary to popular opinion, it doesn’t smell, and no, it’s not a major component of farts. More methane is actually pumped out from the other end… In fact one cow can belch out an astounding 700 litres of methane in a day! But there are many other sources of methane…

Dr Smith: The sources of methane can be broadly categorized as biogenic, of biological origin, pyrogenic, which is basically combusted biomass, and fossil sources.

Narration: Some of the methane in the atmosphere today has natural origins. But more than half of it was put there by us… And of that landfill, agriculture and mining account for about a third each. The atmospheric methane concentration today is just under 2 parts per million compared to carbon dioxide which is currently 384 parts per million. But atom for atom methane is far more potent than CO2 and it accounts for a whopping 20% of the green house warming effect. Working out where atmospheric methane has come from is a tricky business but it is a vital part of developing strategies to control it.

Dr Etheridge: So one way we do it, is we take air off the roof there, down a line, into a pump, and then take it over here where we analyse it for Methane.

Narration: Dr David Etheridge measures air samples from the roof of his CSIRO lab in Melbourne.

Dr David Etheridge: This is the methane concentration right now from above our roof top.

Narration: And with new technology they are now able to analyse bottled atmosphere from this library of air archive. Some of these canisters were stored 30 years ago.

Paul: This is the oldest specimen it comes from Cape Grim and it was collected in 1978.

Dr Etheridge: These are remote stations which have been placed to capture air coming off oceans, which is pretty much what we call background or baseline air.

Narration: So what’s the picture so far?

Dr Etheridge: From 1978 onwards (the earliest measurements) there was a rapid increase in methane concentration.

Narration: And this was mainly because of an increase in agriculture and industry. But then something unexpected happened –

Dr Etheridge: Methane has stabilized in concentration ah beginning in about 1999. And it wasn’t too clear what that was…

Narration: We’ll deal with the future of methane later, but how do we investigate what happened prior to 1978? The answer is trapped in ice.

Dr Smith: That’s a nice sample.

Narration: CSIRO scientist, Dr Andrew Smith and his colleagues have been drilling ice cores in Antarctica as well as recovering samples from Greenland. And the challenge is enormous …

Dr Andrew Smith: Aiming to produce a five microgram carbon sample after having liberating the air from a hundred kilograms of ice – this is tough.

Paul: This is a cut section of the ice core, and you can actually see the tiny bubbles of ancient atmosphere that these guys are interested in.

Narration: After painstakingly extracting the methane gas from the ice core, it’s converted into carbon, and then, it’s ready for analysis.

Paul: This is ANTARES the Australian National Tandem for Applied Research. It’s an extremely accurate atom counter and it’s just the tool you need to work out the history of methane in the atmosphere.

Narration: Samples are mounted on a sample wheel, ionised, accelerated, have their polarity reversed, stripped of their electrons all in a trillionth of a blink of an eye and they end up here.

Paul: So how sensitive is this? How many atoms can you count?

Dr Smith: Well this equipment, it gives us the ability to detect just one carbon fourteen atom in amongst ten to the sixteen stable carbon atoms. That’s a very big number. Ah it’s equivalent for example to finding one yellow grain of sand in amongst twenty tons of orange sand.

Paul: One in a gazillion.

Narration: Thanks to the work of scientists around the world, we can now track the history of atmospheric methane back some 800,000 years. Generally levels go down when there’s an ice age and they come up again in the interglacial periods. But something alarming has happened to methane levels since the beginning of the industrial revolution.

Dr Smith: The methane concentration has increased by two hundred and fifty percent over the agro-industrial period.

Narration: While that rise is alarming and its consequences unknown, there is an upside to the methane story. We can do something about it – by harnessing its energy.

Paul: Most of the methane in the atmosphere today has been put there by humans through landfill, coal mining, agriculture and other activities; But unlike CO2 it’s relatively easy to capture methane before it gets loose… and it pays to do so.

Narration: As the rubbish decomposes methane is released and captured in these pipes. It’s then pumped to this power station. The energy generated here has the potential to provide electricity to 16,000 homes… and even though CO2 is being produced in the process, the original methane is 20 times more harmful as a green house gas. While it looks like we can control the release of methane from some sources we shouldn’t be too complacent. There could be a spectre of doom lurking, a vast hidden source of methane… They’re called clathrates. It’s methane that’s been locked inside the crystal structure of water ice. They are found around the continental margins of oceans and polar regions, in very cold, high pressure conditions. They’re also locked up in the frozen tundra…

Dr Smith: There’s an enormous amount of this stuff. Something like five thousand gigatonnes of carbon locked up as methane clathrate. That’s about the same as all the carbon that’s locked up in oil, gas and coal reserves.

Narration: But if temperatures rise or if the tundra melts they could be destabilised, releasing massive amounts of methane.

Dr David Etheridge: So you’d only need to release one percent of them and you have multiplied your atmosphere by about ten times concentration of methane.

Narration: And the consequences could be catastrophic. Sound far fetched? It may have happened before…

Paul: This is Scarborough to the north of Wollongong and the rocks here were laid down at a very important time in the history of the earth. To the north of here towards Sydney the rocks get progressively younger they’re going into the age of the dinosaurs. Going that way to the south they get older they go into the Palaeozoic or time of ancient life but right here is known as the Permian extinction it was a time when life on the planet was almost snuffed out and it looks like the culprit was methane.

Narration: Dr Evelyn Krull has been researching the Permian extinction

Dr Krull: We were collected samples across the Permian Triassic boundary and analysing those on our mass spectrometers.

Narration: The ratio of carbon isotopes in the rocks indicates that 250 million years ago there was a very rapid and extremely large release of methane into the atmosphere. And the fossils from before and after the extinction describe two completely different worlds.

Dr Krull: You see that these beautiful big trees were replaced by these ferns. They don’t have as much organic matter in them. So these ferns grew in a completely different environment.

Paul: So these are from a colder environment and this is a, a warmer world?

Dr Krull: That’s correct, yes. So it radically changed and these plants were not able to grow there anymore. It was essentially a chain of events that that was happening.

Narration: Just before the extinction there was a huge amount of volcanic activity in what is now Siberia. It pumped a massive amount of CO2 into the atmosphere causing significant global warming. This may have triggered what has been called The Clathrate Gun. Clathrates melt releasing vast quantities of methane into the air, feeding the global warming loop and releasing more methane….

Dr Krull: The calculations at the Permian Triassic boundary are that about two thousand four hundred gigatons of carbon were released from methane clathrates.

Narration: This resulted in massive global warming, perhaps 10 degrees or more in a couple of decades. So is it possible that the clathrate gun could fire again?

Dr Evelyn Krull: The chances are actually pretty high that this will occur again just simply because we are warming the atmosphere and we are causing shifts right now in these high latitude environments.

Narration: While it could happen again, it’s unlikely to be on the same scale as the Permian extinction. But remember earlier we said that methane levels in the atmosphere have been stable for most of the last decade? Well the latest data is of grave concern.

Dr Etheridge: In the last year and a half, methane is now increasing again in the atmosphere.

Narration: And given its history, methane is certainly a potent player in global warming…

Dr Krull: It might just come up and make everything ten times warmer than before.

Narration: We need to watch this gas very carefully. Although the chance of a methane meltdown is remote, if it happens, this hospitable planet as we know it would cease to exist…

Topics: Environment

  • Reporter: Dr Paul Willis
  • Producer: Ingrid Arnott
  • Researcher: Holly Trueman
  • Camera: Kevin May
    Tom Gelai
    Greg Ashman
  • Sound: Steve Ravich
    Graeme Cornish
    Phil Jinks
  • Editor: Sasha Madon


Dr Andrew Smith
Senior Principal Research Scientist

Dr David Etheridge
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research

Dr Evelyn Krull
Research Scientist and Group Leader
Carbon and Nutrient Cycling
CSIRO Land & Water



Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research

CSIRO Land and Water – Dr Evelyn Krull

Methane Time Bomb

Turning CO2 into Fuel Using Hydrogen generated by HFS innovative technology


CO2 Fuel  .   An interesting report today was published by the CSIRO concerning the use of hydrogen in producing methane gas  for coal fired power stations , as a means of recycling carbon dioxide, reducing the carbon dioxide output and effectively increasing the efficiency of the Coal fired Power station and reducing carbon dioxide pollution.

Turning CO2 into Fuel – CSIRO blog

Turning CO2 into Fuel


It’s a interesting report ,especially as I have a prototype unit operational for use on coal fired power station in Australia’s East Coast.  You can imagine how I felt when I read the headline explaining how this is a new innovative proposal after I submitted my unit back in july 2016.

The major advantage of this system of H.F.S. pty ltd is that is uses the high temperature and thermal energy of the carbon dioxide to power the catalytic reaction involving hydrogen and carbon dioxide to generate Methane gas that is fed back into the power station fuel source  increase the efficiency of the system and require less coal in the first place to provide the required station power output.

The heart of the process is the patented catalyst used to combine Hydrogen and carbon dioxide together to manufacture methane. along with HFS extremely efficient Hydrogen generator technology.

This process  does not eliminate the carbon dioxide output but significantly reduces its annual output and influence on the environment.  Currently we are testing several mechanisms which effectively lock up the output gases which are not used in generating methane gas.

More INFORMATION will follow.

Servicing HHO System for use on cars, trucks generators and boats/ shipping


Following are the instructions for Servicing HHO System  as used by trucks and cars using the HydrogenFuelSystem pty ltd system for hydrogen Generation

  1. One litre of water should last 15 hour s of continuous operation.
  2. Add Distilled water to recycling container to bring it to the full mark –8cm from top of tank.
  3. After 3 months of operation, the liquid should be flushed out and drained. New/Fresh solution should be used.
  4. For trucks and other engines using a 24 volt and 30 amp, supplying one litre of water should last between 5 to 6 hours of continuous operation.
  5. Concentration of 11 grams per litre equates a pH of 13.6. This is the ideal concentration of the solution in the system
  6. In order to make up the solution the ideal way is to make a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide by dissolving 50 grams in 150 mls of water.
  7. With the system running , slowly add small amounts of the concentrated solution to the recycling tank until the current flow in the system measures 28 amp. This is a time consuming process and time shhold be allowed to mix the potassium hyrdroxide solution thoroughly before adding more electrolyte .  The complete operation should take 5 min to set up.
  8. Once operational only water needs to be added to fill the reservoir up to the level of 8 cm from the top of the recycling container

Twin Gen 20 Hydrogen booster system for use on cars, trucks, generators,boats and shipping


Twin Hydrogen Booster systems as installed on C16 powered Kenworth trucks – Coogee Chemicals ( Australia)


How to avoid Poor terminal connections fault in Hydrogen Generator systems – June 2017


How to avoid Poor terminal connections fault.      Last week  (June 2017) I checked the operation of My Hydrogen generator system and noticed that one of the terminals in the engine bay , that was delivering current through a relay unit  to the Hydrogen system , had been affected by heat such that the plastic insulation was deformed  as shown in the photo 1 below

I checked the temperature of every terminal  in the systems as it was operating and noticed that the suspect terminal was operating  at 60 celcius , while all other terminals were operating at 32 celcius.

Apart from the deformed plastic the suspect terminal looked fine and was conducting current through the relay.

I replaced the terminal and sPrayed it with lanolin lubricant to stop any future oxidation of the copper leads.

I have operated the system for the past 7 days and have consistently shown an increase in fuel economy of 1.7 km/litre, so that I am now achieving 19.5 km/litre.

I tested the terminal with a multimeter and noticed only a small increase in terminal resistance in low current flow conditions , but also noted that the internal resistance increases by over a 200 mili ohm when operating at 12 volt and 20 amp

This equates to a waste of electrical Power of P=I x I x R  =  20 x 20 x 0.2  = 80 watts  (80 joules per second)

The input Power = V x I = 12 x 20 = 240 watt (240 joules per second)

Wasting 80 watt  for a  total of 240 watt input is  a massive 33%

I recommend testing the terminals with Infra red laser thermometers , to check the condtion of the electrical terminals and  identify faulty terminals which could adversely affect the operation of your Hydrogen generator system.

Moral to the story is it is crucial to check and ensure that all terminals are in good condition  – and preferable treated with a liquid such as with  lanolin corrosion inhibitor.. Alternately with oxidation any electrolysis unit will generate heat rather that hydrogen

Can Hydrogen Injection save the diesel engine technology and save fuel while increasing power output


Can Hydrogen Injection save the diesel engine?

The greatest automotive story this century has been the “Dieselgate” conspiracy. Not only has it brought down the established regime at VW, but it’s shaken the very foundation of diesel powered transportation.

VW has already started rolling out a fix in Europe, which many of us are sceptical about, but are still “negotiating” with legislators in North America. This delay has opened the door for many lesser known technologies to offer a solution; some of them snake oil, some showing real potential.

Image Credit:   —– VW emissions  fix

One such technology is hydrogen injection, also commonly known as HHO.

Forty years of hydrogen injection.

Hydrogen injection has been around since the 1970s and works by injecting hydrogen into a modified, internal combustion engine, which allows the engine to burn cleaner with more power and lower emissions. Hydrogen is injected into the air prior to entering the combustion chamber. Hydrogen burns 10 times as fast as diesel and, when mixed with the diesel in the combustion chamber, accelerates the rate at which the diesel burns.

Don’t confuse hydrogen injection with hydrogen fuel cell technology, they’re vastly different:

A hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle is powered by a group of individual fuel cells, known as a fuel cell stack. The electricity generated by the fuel cell stack powers the electric motor that propels the vehicle.
Each fuel cell is an anode, a cathode and a proton exchange membrane sandwiched in between. Hydrogen, from a tank onboard the vehicle, enters into the anode side of the fuel cell. Oxygen, pulled from the air, enters the cathode side. As the hydrogen molecule encounters the membrane, a catalyst forces it to split into electron and proton. The proton moves through the fuel cell stack and the electron follows an external circuit, delivering current to the electric motor and other vehicle components. At the cathode side, the proton and electron join again, and then combine with oxygen to form the vehicle’s only tailpipe emission, water.

Image Credit: Hydrogen Injection Technologies

  • Hydrogen injection systems, such as the aftermarket supplemental hydrogen on-demand system developed by Hydrogen Injection Technologies(HIT), utilize electrolysis to produce hydrogen on-demand. This hydrogen gas is synthesized from the atmosphere and released into the air-intake of any fuel based internal combustion engine. (The system is capable of NRE retrofit to any industrial engine, car, boat, RV, generator etc. up to 20 litres capacity)

Over the past 40 years several tests have been performed to investigate the impact of hydrogen injection on performance and emissions. One such test recently published by the SAE, a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine was tested for its performance and emissions in dual-fuel (hydrogen-diesel) mode.

Using an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) controlled Electronic Gas Injector, the injection timing and duration were varied on a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles.

The injection timing of the diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. By using hydrogen and diesel as a fuel emissions of Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) decrease without exhausting more smoke.
The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained was about 30% at full load for the optimized injection timing of 5° after Gas Exchange Top Dead Center (AGTDC) and for an injection duration of 90°-crank angle. The NOx emission tends to reduce to a lower value of 888 parts per million (ppm) at full-load condition for the optimized injection timing of 5° AGTDC and with an injection duration of 90° compared to neat diesel fuel operation.

Of interest in the VW saga the hydrogen supplemental fuel system developed by Hydrogen Injection Technologies has been field and lab tested (by CEE, Inc. a CARB certified laboratory) as a hardware only solution reducing NOx by over 50%.

Unlike hydrogen fuel cells HHO’s do not require a bulky pressure vessel to store the gas, as it’s a low pressure system that generates hydrogen through electrolysis of water.

As a retrofit it’s legal to run a Hydrogen Cell Generator (also called a Hydrogen Booster cell) to add HHO to the air intake, which can achieve 10% to 30% improvement in fuel consumption (Claimed).

According to Bob Boyce, the original H2O booster cell maker, the efficacy of the system relies on generating quality Hydroxy Gas. This requires a higher spin state of HHO, close to the level of deuterium to achieve consistent fuel consumption gains, and cells that can run 24/7 without heating up. Significant gains are achieved when the HHO bonds to hydro-carbon molecules, thereby completing the burn.

Moving hydrogen generation forward.

In 2014 scientists at Stanford University developed a process using a dry cell 1.5-volt battery to split water into hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature, potentially providing a low-cost method to power fuel cells in zero-emissions vehicles and buildings.

The water splitter is made from the relatively cheap and abundant metals nickel and iron. It works by sending an electric current from a single-cell AAA battery through two electrodes.

According to chemistry professor and lead researcher Hongjie Dai: “This is the first time anyone has used non-precious metal catalysts to split water at a voltage that low.” “It’s quite remarkable, because normally you need expensive metals like platinum or iridium to achieve that voltage.”

Fuel cell vehicles have been widely criticized for their high cost, the lack of infrastructure around their fuel delivery, and their low energy efficiency after accounting for the effort it takes to produce compressed hydrogen (often involving large industrial plants that use an energy-intensive process that combines steam and natural gas).

“It’s been a constant pursuit for decades to make low-cost electrocatalysts with high activity and long durability,” Dai explains. “When we found out that a nickel-based catalyst is as effective as platinum, it came as a complete surprise.”

The nickel-metal/nickel-oxide catalyst, discovered by Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, also requires significantly lower voltages to split water when compared to pure nickel or pure nickel oxide. This new technique is not quite ready for commercial production, though.

“The electrodes are fairly stable, but they do slowly decay over time,” Gong says. “The current device would probably run for days, but weeks or months would be preferable. That goal is achievable based on my most recent results.”
The next step is to improve that decay rate and to test a version that runs on electricity produced by solar energy instead of the AAA battery.

Benefits of HHO

In 2013, after eight years of research, Mark Dansie published an article on where he outlined the following benefits:

  1. HHO reduces carbon monoxide up to 90%. Carbon monoxide is a fuel and HHO acts a catalyst to promote its combustion
    2. HHO decreases hydrocarbons by about 10% to 90%
    3. HHO drops particulate levels, especially organic particulates by 10% to 70%
    4. HHO will reduce EGT (Exhaust gas temperature) from 50 to 150 degree F (depending on engine load)
    5. HHO also decreases mechanical noise (was noticeable in every lab test by all the technicians but not measured)
    6. HHO doesn’t always reduce NOx and in some circumstances increase it (water injection reduces it really well)
    7. Only a small, and very specific amount of HHO is required to achieve significant results. If too much is supplied engine efficiency will be reduced if using electrolysis to produce the HHO
    8. Horsepower is increased between 3% and 12% depending on the engine and Cetane grade of diesel used.
    9. HHO improved and cleaned heavily carbonized engines. Often after weeks of running, fuel efficiency increased through this cleaning process. In one case an improvement of 13% was obtained and when the hydrogen unit was removed it still retained an 11% improvement.
    10. HHO works best at elevated engine speeds. There were no benefits at idling speed.

Although empirical results indicate that on-demand hydrogen injection technology does improve efficiency and reduce emissions, hard test data under recognized European and North American automotive standards is hard to find.

I for one would like to see before-and-after tests conducted under harmonized driving standards, to substantiate the gains claimed by Dansie, Hydrogen Injection Technologies, and other interested parties.

The timing is right! With France reducing incentives for purchasing new diesel vehicles, Euro6c and real world testing looming and VW’s predicament in America, Diesel engines need a new approach to cleaning up diesel exhaust gas emissions to survive the onslaught.


by peter els on May 19, 2016 in Emissions control and regulation 2

A Digital EFIE operation and How it works to adjust the fuel map to run hydrogen on engines


Digital EFIE operation

Digital EFIE operation – Previous EFIE Designs First, lets have a look at how oxygen sensors work. Have a look at Figure A below. Here we have a graph that is a representation of the voltage output of a typical oxygen sensor while the engine is running. Note, that this is only an approximation of a real voltage graph. A real graph would be much more jagged and would not be so regular as this one. But I’m using this graph to make it easier to visualize the concept of what the sensor is doing.

Narrow band oxygen sensors don’t tell the ECU what the air/fuel ratio is. They only tell if the mixture is rich or lean. The line that is marked “.45” volts denotes the make/break point for the sensor’s voltage output. Any voltages that are higher than .45 volts is considered to be rich, and any voltages that are less than .45 volts is considered to be lean. When the sensor produces .45 volts, that is considered to be the correct air/fuel mixture which happens to be 14.7 to 1, air to fuel (by weight). The trouble with narrow band sensors is that they can’t tell the ECU how rich or how lean the mix is. They only tell the ECU “rich” or “lean”. Therefore, in normal operation, they are constantly changing voltages similarly to the graph in Figure A.

Now look at Figure B. The blue line in this graph represents how an EFIE changes the voltage graph of the sensor. As the sensor produces its voltages (as represented by the red graph), the EFIE adds additional voltage. We are showing an EFIE set to 350 millivolts (.35 volts). Therefore the output of the EFIE that goes to the computer will be the voltages in the blue line on the graph. Because higher voltages mean a richer mix to the ECU, the ECU will then lean the mix when it “sees” these “richer” mixture signals coming from the oxygen sensor.

Almost all EFIE designs that are in use today work like the above graph, by adding a voltage to the output of the oxygen sensor. While this approach does work, and has been the only solution available for many years, it has 2 problems that make it not the ideal design.

1. There is a definite limit to the amount of voltage you can add. Notice that if we added .5 volts in the above graph, that the blue line would never dip below the .45 volt line. This is an illegal condition and the ECU will quickly stop using the oxygen sensor if it never sees the voltage transitioning from rich to lean. In actual fact many ECUs need to see voltages lower than .45 volts before it will consider that the mix is lean, and so often you can’t set an EFIE higher than 250 millivolts or so without throwing engine error codes.

2. It takes a relatively large change in the voltage to make a small change in the air/fuel ratio. This wouldn’t be a problem in itself, but coupled with the fact that we can only add a limited amount of voltage, this causes an end result of a small change in air/fuel ratio.

There is one other approach in EFIE design in use today, and that is to use an amplifier. Instead of adding voltage to the sensor’s output, EFIEs of this type will amplify the signal. This, in effect, multiplies the signal. This is a better approach in that the lower voltages are not increased as much as the higher voltages, and you should be able to shift the air/fuel ratio further than with a voltage “adder”. However, it is still limited to the amount it can shift the voltage before all voltages are higher than .45 volts. Also, the amplified voltages at the top of the graph can get quite high, possibly high enough that it will set off alarms in the ECU.

Enter the Digital Narrow Band EFIE

There are other EFIE designs being marketed as “digital”. In each case, as of this writing, the only thing digital about them is the pot used to control the EFIE. It’s a digital pot and will have one of 64 or 128 resistance values, or possibly more depending on the resistor chip design. While this is cool, it makes no difference in the operation of the EFIE. It will still be operating like one of those described in the section above.

Our new Digital Narrow Band EFIE operates completely differently from any other EFIE made. Our new EFIE is called digital, because it’s output is either on or off. Or in other words is either high or low. Or to put in terms the ECU will understand, the output will be either rich or lean. Or to put it in terms of voltage, the output is either going to be .100 volts or .900 volts. This is perfectly acceptable to the ECU and tells it exactly what we want it to see. But because it’s output is only one of 2 states, we rightfully call this device a “digital” device.

So how do we know when to switch from the high state to the low state? We have a comparator in the EFIE that “decides” when to switch states. If the EFIE were to be set so that there was no change in air/fuel ratio, the comparator would be set to .45 volts. This would mean that if the voltage coming in from the sensor were below .45 volts, the output would be low, and likewise if the voltage coming in from the sensor were above .45 volts, the output would be set to high. This would cause a flat response in the ECU where it would provide the same air/fuel ratio as if the EFIE were not involved.

To lower the air/fuel ratio we need to make the mix appear richer. In order to do this, we make the EFIE transition to a high output even though the input is below .45 volts. In other words, instead of using .45 volts as the switching threshold, we use .20 volts (see Figure C).


By adjusting the pot

By adjusting the pot on our new EFIE, we are adjusting at which voltage the comparator will use to determine if the output should be set to high or low. In the graph below, we show 2 comparator voltages for comparison. At .45 volts, we can see that the output will be high about 1/2 of the time. This is the same as it would be without the EFIE. Now notice the line at .2 volts. By setting the EFIE’s comparator at .2 volts, the EFIE output will be low for about 30% of the time and high about 70% of the time. This will make the air/fuel mix look richer than it is, and the ECU will respond by leaning out the mix.

Note that .2 volts is probably too low for your vehicle. You will probably not need to set it this low. We only set it here to make it easy to see the principal involved with our new Digital EFIE. An actual setting would probably be closer to .300 – .325 volts.

Note: When downstream sensors need to be treated, do not use this device. Use an older style, voltage adding type of EFIE. The reason for this is that we’re not certain how the downstream sensor information is used by the ECU. In some cases, we have read the voltages from downstream sensors and they don’t jump up and down as shown in the graphs above. We’ve seen them just float around in the .2 to .3 volt range, not changing much. This is not the behavior that the Digital EFIE was designed for. It may work fine. But we prefer that the ECU just see the same behavior, but shifted up a bit, the way a voltage adding type of EFIE will do. Any of our Narrow Band EFIEs that aren’t labeled “Digital” will work for this application.

Using this device, some people have been able to lean the mix to the point that the engine will die. However, in some cases, it is still necessary to do other treatments to get the leaning results needed. For instance many ECUs use the downstream sensors as part of the air/fuel calcs, and many more will use the downstream sensors to verify the upstream sensors and throw odd engine errors. In these cases, downstream EFIEs are needed to get the needed results. That’s why we created the Digital EFIE & MAP/MAF Combo It has 2 digital EFIEs for the upstream sensors and 2 analog EFIEs for the downstream sensors. This will give you the optimum treatment for each sensor, and is the most powerful solution we’ve seen yet for optimizing your engine for use with HHO or other fuel combustion enhancement technologies.

MAP Sensor, MAF sensor , and Controlling Fuel usage – Important


MAP sensor MAF sensor and hydrogen fuel systems is the essential information we are attempting to explain in this passage.  

MAF sensor and fuel usage   How to control Fuel input into modern vehicles with CPM.   MAF sensor , MAP Sensor and Controlling Fuel usage – Hydrogen Fuel Systems


Meta description preview:MAF sensor and fuel usage MAP and MAF sensor adjustment and maximizing fuel efficiency and power for diesel fueled , gasoline / petrol fueled and LPG fueled


MAP/MAF sensor and hydrogen fuel systems is the essential information we are attempting to explain in this passage.  The Tuning of any petrol fuelled engine relies on the tuning of the following sensors so as to attain a Stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.  This is the ratio of the mass of  air injected to  the mass of the fuel injected at STP.  Modern computer fuel injected engines aim to maintain this AFR ratio and monitor several sensors which signal the Engine ECU/PCM to maintain this  ratio.  These sensors are the

  1. mass air flow sensor (MAF),
  2. Air intake sensor
  3. Precat oxygen sensor ( also known as the AFR sensor)
  4. Precat oxygen sensor
  5. Coolant temperature sensor
  6. Manifold Air pressure sensor- (MAP) ( also known as the Boost pressure sensor).

When all sensors are in agreement with loading conditions, the ECU/PCM will fuel injection pulse length to supply sufficient fuel for the loading conditions on the engine.

The MAF sensor adjusts the fuel input measured in Grams of fuel per second.  This measurement is dependent upon the temperature of the of the input air temperature (at constant Pressure P) as with increasing temperature the volume of gas increases according the universal gas law

P.V = n.R.T

Volume of gas

Increasing the temperature (T) of the gas results in the reduction of number of moles (n) of oxygen gas, per litre of air, present for the combustion reaction.  As a result the engine ECU/PCM reduces the mass of fuel / second, injected into the engine so as to maintain its desired stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.    This is also be explained by the fact that Colder air is denser that warm air.

The initial Primary fuel control mechanism is dependent upon the MAF sensor and Air intake sensor , which is then adjusted and trimmed  by the MAP sensor , AFR sensor, oxygen sensor and coolant temperature sensor to attain the desired stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.

There are a range of MAF sensors that  are designed to measure the air intake volume.

Typically older engines use Hot wire MAF sensors that are analog  sensors and show a change in voltage across the hot wire as more air flows past the sensor. Increasing airflow reduces the temperature of the hot wire and increases its electrical resistance and thus increasing the voltage of the signal sent of the ECU/PVM.  This is a slow response system and has been replaced in modern engines by Digital systems the adjust/ increase the frequency of the signal sent to the ECU/PCM as more air flows past the MAF sensor.

In GM engines there is both a MAP sensor and a MAF sensor which control the engine ECU/PCM.  In the case of GM , Holdens , the MAF sensor is the primary sensor controlling the air/ fuel ratio of the engine and the MAP is a backup sensor on the case of failure of the MAF sensor.

In other older vehicles there is no MAF sensor and the MAP sensor is the primary control sensor  for the stoichiometric air fuel ratio control.

At Idle the air pressure sensor in  the manifold reads a low pressure ( high vacuum ) just as it is on engine deceleration .  This equates to a low loading condition where little fuel is required  and sends a low voltage signal from the MAP to the ECU/CPM.   Conversely under a large load a low pressure and high voltage signal is sent to the ECU/CPM indicating more fuel is required for engine operation.

As can be seen , by adjusting the voltage signal from the MAP sensor to a  lower value , will inform the engine ECU/PCM that less fuel is required because the engine is under less loading.

Now lets consider the electronic fuel enhancer unit as used on vehicles  with hydrogen on demand systems.  Even though a Stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1 is what the engine is tuned to run with, by reducing the amount of fuel used , then the Stoichiometric ratio will raise much higher than 14.7:1 and the computer will try and adjust by adding extra fuel.  To strop that happening , the MAF sensor must adjust to read a lower mass of fuel  by

  1. Reducing  the frequency of the digital MAF sensor
  2. Reducing the output voltage of the analog MAF sensor

Secondly the Ait intake sensor reinforces this by indicating a higher air temperature with lower percentage  oxygen per litre of air to reduce the fuel input

Next the Oxygen / AFR sensor is adjusted to read a lower percentage oxygen in the exhaust — that equates to a rich exhaust and therefore  reduce the amount of fuel so as to get the  Stoichiometric ratio to what the ECU /CPM thinks is  14.7:1

Sensors such as the Coolant temperature sensor and postCat oxygen sensor are fine tuning sensors to get the best possible airfuel ratio

To summarize : The sensors are adjusted to deliver  a very lean mixture that the ECU/CPM is tricked into accepting as the Stoichiometric ratio of  14.7:1.

Is there a danger of using a lean mixture on an engine? The answer is Yes , for  normally fuelled engines without Hydrogen.  However because of the much, much, much, much….higher flame speed of the hydrogen fuel mixture,   and because the reduction in particular matter , and  because of the much cleaner burn with no deposits, and because of the improved conditions of the exhaust gases emitted, then a much higher Stoichiometric ratio can be achieved delivering greater power output and again requiring less fuel energy used per second to maintain the Vehicle speed  / loading .

In the case of older engines without a MAF sensor then its role is taken on by the MAP Sensor.




Electronic fuel enhancer needs time to activate


The electronic fuel enhancer needs time to activate

Many people fail to get the maximum  benefits out of  their hydrogen fuel system. They may be too eager to have everything operational as soon as they get in their vehicle. Drivers need to understand that the electronic fuel enhancer can’t work properly until the Engine Computer Unit (ECU) has gone through its setup tests.

Each time you start the engine the ECU must read the sensors and set the appropriate fuel map for the engine conditions. This process takes  time.

You should NOT switch on the electronic fuel enhancer modules for the first 3 to 4  minutes of operation. This will give the ECU time to conduct its internal tests and setups.

When driving my V6  Holden Captiva I find it takes under 3 minutes to complete the ECU self tests.  With my 3.6Litre  V6 commodore I wait 4 minutes before switching on the electronic fuel enhancer. This gives the ECU time to read the sensor signals and select the engine fuel map that provides maximum power and best economy.

Without allowing enough time for the ECU  to set up the sensors and initial fuel map,  the fuel savings and power increases are harder to attain.

As long as the engine is running, the ECU will continue to monitor the sensors. Depending upon the sensor reading it continually adjusts the fuel map to provide optimum economy and power.engine cross-section working



Without allowing enough time for the ECU  to set up the sensors and initial fuel map,  the fuel savings and power increases are harder to attain.

As long as the engine is running, the ECU will continue to monitor the one more word sensors. Depending upon the sensor reading it continually adjusts the fuel map to provide optimum economy and power five more words are needed..

MOSFET current controlled circuits for power supplies


MOSFET current controlled circuits

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

Electrical knowledge

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.