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Ketones to combat Alzheimer’s disease


voltage regulator power supply for hydrogen fuel systems


Astro-Physics, Electro-Chemistry and Engineering concepts for students


As Part of this website , and with being a Qualified Astro-Physicist, Chemist and Civil Engineer , I have decided to publish a series of interactive PDF documents with the aim of educating our young girls and boys interested in studying  Physics and Chemistry.

INITIALLY these documents  / posts will be mixed in with the hydrogen fuel systems  posts. The aim of these posts is to help my year 12 Physics students working on Particle-physics and the structure of matter — Australian Science Curriculum

M9re to follow

Hydrogen systems for Diesel Engines University Research


Hydrogen fuel systems

Hydrogen systems for Diesel Engines University Research

Hydrogen fuel systems. Today October 3 2017, On Holidays at Ramada resort, Dunsborough WA,  I was conducting research online for the following research topic

“hydrogen systems for diesel engines university research”

I was able to find many authentic research articles including ones from a group from with URL address

Science direct is a University research URL requiring membership.,  However there are many reference links showing authors and published papers which can be easily located online through a google search

One such paper I found to start with was headed “Combustion characteristics of diesel-hydrogen dual fuel engine at low load” and was located at the URL1-s2.0-S1876610213000040-main hydrogen dual fuel

1-s2.0-S1876610213000040-main hydrogen dual fuel

Which I downloaded and have copied onto this post

The research report was well written and a clear concise document providing proof of the use of Hydrogen as a duel fuel for use with diesel

Hydrogen fuel systems

“In the present study, hydrogen utilization as diesel engine fuel at low load operation was investigated. Hydrogen cannot be used directly in a diesel engine due to its auto ignition temperature higher than that of diesel fuel. One alternative method is to use hydrogen in enrichment or induction. To investigate the combustion characteristics of this dual fuel engine, a single cylinder diesel research engine was converted to utilize hydrogen as fuel. Hydrogen was introduced to the intake manifold using a mixer before entering the combustion chamber. The engine was run at a constant speed of 2000 rpm and 10 Nm load. Hydrogen was introduced at the flow rate of 21.4, 36.2, and 49.6 liter/minute. Specific energy consumption, indicated efficiency, and cylinder pressure were investigated. At this low load, the hydrogen enrichment reduced the cylinder peak pressure and the engine efficiency.”

Hydrogen fuel systems

“The advantages of using hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engine is among other a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel, non-toxic, odorless, and has wide range flammability. Other hydrogen properties that would be a challenge to solve when using it for internal combustion engine fuel, i.e.: low ignition energy, small quenching distance, and low density”

Hydrogen fuel systems

“5. Conclusion Experiments and simulation works were conducted on DI diesel engine with hydrogen in the dual fuel mode. Under constant load and speed engine operation, hydrogen induction into the intake manifold 10 W.B. Santoso et al. / Energy Procedia 32 ( 2013 ) 3 – 10 reduces the diesel fuel consumption. Diesel reduction of 50, 90, and 97% was achieved during the investigation. These relatively high percentages of hydrogen fuel are detrimental to the engine performance in terms of energy consumption and efficiency. An increasing hydrogen flow rate at the low load operation results in a higher SEC. It means that more fuel is necessary to produce the same power output. At this low load operation, the efficiency decreases with hydrogen enrichment. This condition affects the values of SEC. Measurement of in-cylinder pressure was carried out to investigate the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. Hydrogen enrichment reduced the peak pressure and retarded the start of combustion. CFD simulation reveals that hydrogen enrichment in such a high percentage resulted in slower reaction progress due to lower combustion rate of reaction. Temperature distributions along the cut plane at the spray axis showed the progress of the combustion processes. Acknowledgment The authors wish to thank Universiti Malaysia Pahang for supporting this research under GRS 100303. Fully support from LIPI by providing the experiment and simulation facilities are grateful acknowledged.

References [1] Fulton J, Lynch F, Marmora R. Hydrogen for reducing emissions from alternative fuel vehicle. SAE Technical Paper 1993;No. 931813.

[2] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G. An experimental investigation of hydrogen-enriched air induction in a diesel engine system. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2008; 33:1769-1775

. [3] Pundir BP, Kumar R. Combustion and smoke emission studies on a hydrogen fuel supplemented DI diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2007;No. 2007-01-0055.

[4] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Kalaiselvan KM, Dhanasekaran C. An experimental investigation on hydrogen as a dual fuel for diesel engine system with exhaust gas recirculation technique. Renewable Energy. 2008;33:422-427.

[5] McWilliam L, Megaritis T, Zhao H. Experimental investigation of the effects of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the emissions of a HSDI diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2008;No. 2008-01-1787.

[6] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Dhanasekaran C, Kalaiselvan KM. Experimental investigation of hydrogen port fuel injection in DI diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2007;32:4071-4080.

[7] Lilik GK, Zhang H, Herreros JM, Haworth DC, Boehman AL. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2010;35:4382-4398.

[8] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Dhanasekaran C, Kalaiselvan KM. Experimental investigation of hydrogen fuel injection in DI dual fuel diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper. 2007;No. 2007-01-1465.

[9] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G. An experimental investigation on a diesel engine with hydrogen fuel injection in intake manifold. SAE Technical Paper. 2008;No. 2008-01-1784.

[10] Saravanan N, Nagarajan G. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source. Applied Energy. 2010;87:2218-2229.

[11] Bose PK, Maji D. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine using hydrogen as inducted fuel and diesel as injected fuel with exhaust gas recirculation. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2009;34:4847- 4854.

[12] Szwaja S, Grab-Rogalinski K. Hydrogen combustion in a compression ignition diesel engine. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2009;34:4413-4421

Hydrogen Generator systems for heavy duty trucking/mining


Hydrogen Generator systems for heavy duty trucking

Hydrogen Generator.  Recently HFS were commissioned By Coogee chemicals Pty Ltd  , west Australia to produce a new configuration of Hydrogen fuel systems to save fuel on their Cummins Powered Kenworth trucking.

The New configuration was  mounted into a stainless steel enclosure box with stainless steel piping and stainless steel recycling container which is used to  collect the hydrogen gas and pass it through the engine.

Hydrogen Generator

The new configuration is designed to  be rhobust and capable of handling extreme conditions or rough driving terrain , high temperature .  The enclosure box is made from stainless steel 316 and 2.5 mm thick material – easily able to handle reasonable impact loads .  The Pumping system is 12V- 24  V  with a pressure head od 8 m and only used for mixing the solution.

A digital electronic fuel enhancer module is used to adjust the sensor signals from the 1. Manifold air pressure sensor,  2, Coolant temperature  sensor and 3. Air intake temperature sensor  –  so as  to modify the engine  fuel map  save fuel  and increase  engine power and torque

The aim of the EFIE is to reduce  MAP settings by 10%,   increase the AIT settings by 50celcius and CTS settings by 7 celcius.

Photos below show the position of the hydrogen fuel system and efie.

Proto-typing designs


3D printer

Recently I purchased a 3D printer with then aim of making and testing new designs in both hydrogen generator systems as well as In magnetic generators

After copying a number of designs for system modifictions finally found a program called which enabled me to quickly  create , modify , adjust , print and test a number of plastic units to be used in systems.

The Beauty of this program is that is able accurately and cheaply manufacture multiple versions of a system component without the high cost of a CNC machine

3D printer

Also provided with this program is an excellent set of training videos to teach you how to get the best of the 3D printer

These devices were used to 3d print scaled versions of both plastic and metal parts for construction of the hydrogen generator system as well as the magnetic motor system.

3D printer

I will be sharing some of these designs for the world to  view , , use, modify as required in building the new generator systems.


New Hydrogen systems installed Coogee chemicals heavy haulage trucks


New Hydrogen systems installed Coogee chemicals

New Hydrogen systems installed  Coogee chemicals heavy haulage trucks

Pictures attached

improvement in fuel economy 20%— 16 Litre cummins diesel engine 600 HP   – new engine

Methane gas second most abundant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.




The second most abundant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.


Dr Graham Phillips Introduction: Carbon dioxide is synonymous with climate change but what about the other greenhouses gases that we hear little about. Dr Paul Willis reports on a gas that is 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, and unleashed could have devastating consequences.

Narration: We know that global warming is complex.

Dr Evelyn Krull: We are not looking at the whole picture.

Narration: Perhaps we’re missing something important.

Dr Andrew Smith: Increased in concentration by something like two hundred and fifty percent.

Narration: A climate player with a murky past

Dr David Etheridge: warming the globe for very long periods.

Dr Paul Willis: When it comes to climate change, carbon dioxide gets all the attention, but these cows here are producing a greenhouse gas that is more potent than carbon dioxide. It’s a gas that’s been implicated in the greatest mass extinction of all time, and we’re pumping it out at an ever increasing rate.

Dr Etheridge: It has some fairly complex roles in our climate and in the chemistry of the atmosphere.

Dr Smith: It is an important player.

Narration: It’s methane, the forgotten greenhouse gas. And it’s a gas that’s surrounded in myths. Contrary to popular opinion, it doesn’t smell, and no, it’s not a major component of farts. More methane is actually pumped out from the other end… In fact one cow can belch out an astounding 700 litres of methane in a day! But there are many other sources of methane…

Dr Smith: The sources of methane can be broadly categorized as biogenic, of biological origin, pyrogenic, which is basically combusted biomass, and fossil sources.

Narration: Some of the methane in the atmosphere today has natural origins. But more than half of it was put there by us… And of that landfill, agriculture and mining account for about a third each. The atmospheric methane concentration today is just under 2 parts per million compared to carbon dioxide which is currently 384 parts per million. But atom for atom methane is far more potent than CO2 and it accounts for a whopping 20% of the green house warming effect. Working out where atmospheric methane has come from is a tricky business but it is a vital part of developing strategies to control it.

Dr Etheridge: So one way we do it, is we take air off the roof there, down a line, into a pump, and then take it over here where we analyse it for Methane.

Narration: Dr David Etheridge measures air samples from the roof of his CSIRO lab in Melbourne.

Dr David Etheridge: This is the methane concentration right now from above our roof top.

Narration: And with new technology they are now able to analyse bottled atmosphere from this library of air archive. Some of these canisters were stored 30 years ago.

Paul: This is the oldest specimen it comes from Cape Grim and it was collected in 1978.

Dr Etheridge: These are remote stations which have been placed to capture air coming off oceans, which is pretty much what we call background or baseline air.

Narration: So what’s the picture so far?

Dr Etheridge: From 1978 onwards (the earliest measurements) there was a rapid increase in methane concentration.

Narration: And this was mainly because of an increase in agriculture and industry. But then something unexpected happened –

Dr Etheridge: Methane has stabilized in concentration ah beginning in about 1999. And it wasn’t too clear what that was…

Narration: We’ll deal with the future of methane later, but how do we investigate what happened prior to 1978? The answer is trapped in ice.

Dr Smith: That’s a nice sample.

Narration: CSIRO scientist, Dr Andrew Smith and his colleagues have been drilling ice cores in Antarctica as well as recovering samples from Greenland. And the challenge is enormous …

Dr Andrew Smith: Aiming to produce a five microgram carbon sample after having liberating the air from a hundred kilograms of ice – this is tough.

Paul: This is a cut section of the ice core, and you can actually see the tiny bubbles of ancient atmosphere that these guys are interested in.

Narration: After painstakingly extracting the methane gas from the ice core, it’s converted into carbon, and then, it’s ready for analysis.

Paul: This is ANTARES the Australian National Tandem for Applied Research. It’s an extremely accurate atom counter and it’s just the tool you need to work out the history of methane in the atmosphere.

Narration: Samples are mounted on a sample wheel, ionised, accelerated, have their polarity reversed, stripped of their electrons all in a trillionth of a blink of an eye and they end up here.

Paul: So how sensitive is this? How many atoms can you count?

Dr Smith: Well this equipment, it gives us the ability to detect just one carbon fourteen atom in amongst ten to the sixteen stable carbon atoms. That’s a very big number. Ah it’s equivalent for example to finding one yellow grain of sand in amongst twenty tons of orange sand.

Paul: One in a gazillion.

Narration: Thanks to the work of scientists around the world, we can now track the history of atmospheric methane back some 800,000 years. Generally levels go down when there’s an ice age and they come up again in the interglacial periods. But something alarming has happened to methane levels since the beginning of the industrial revolution.

Dr Smith: The methane concentration has increased by two hundred and fifty percent over the agro-industrial period.

Narration: While that rise is alarming and its consequences unknown, there is an upside to the methane story. We can do something about it – by harnessing its energy.

Paul: Most of the methane in the atmosphere today has been put there by humans through landfill, coal mining, agriculture and other activities; But unlike CO2 it’s relatively easy to capture methane before it gets loose… and it pays to do so.

Narration: As the rubbish decomposes methane is released and captured in these pipes. It’s then pumped to this power station. The energy generated here has the potential to provide electricity to 16,000 homes… and even though CO2 is being produced in the process, the original methane is 20 times more harmful as a green house gas. While it looks like we can control the release of methane from some sources we shouldn’t be too complacent. There could be a spectre of doom lurking, a vast hidden source of methane… They’re called clathrates. It’s methane that’s been locked inside the crystal structure of water ice. They are found around the continental margins of oceans and polar regions, in very cold, high pressure conditions. They’re also locked up in the frozen tundra…

Dr Smith: There’s an enormous amount of this stuff. Something like five thousand gigatonnes of carbon locked up as methane clathrate. That’s about the same as all the carbon that’s locked up in oil, gas and coal reserves.

Narration: But if temperatures rise or if the tundra melts they could be destabilised, releasing massive amounts of methane.

Dr David Etheridge: So you’d only need to release one percent of them and you have multiplied your atmosphere by about ten times concentration of methane.

Narration: And the consequences could be catastrophic. Sound far fetched? It may have happened before…

Paul: This is Scarborough to the north of Wollongong and the rocks here were laid down at a very important time in the history of the earth. To the north of here towards Sydney the rocks get progressively younger they’re going into the age of the dinosaurs. Going that way to the south they get older they go into the Palaeozoic or time of ancient life but right here is known as the Permian extinction it was a time when life on the planet was almost snuffed out and it looks like the culprit was methane.

Narration: Dr Evelyn Krull has been researching the Permian extinction

Dr Krull: We were collected samples across the Permian Triassic boundary and analysing those on our mass spectrometers.

Narration: The ratio of carbon isotopes in the rocks indicates that 250 million years ago there was a very rapid and extremely large release of methane into the atmosphere. And the fossils from before and after the extinction describe two completely different worlds.

Dr Krull: You see that these beautiful big trees were replaced by these ferns. They don’t have as much organic matter in them. So these ferns grew in a completely different environment.

Paul: So these are from a colder environment and this is a, a warmer world?

Dr Krull: That’s correct, yes. So it radically changed and these plants were not able to grow there anymore. It was essentially a chain of events that that was happening.

Narration: Just before the extinction there was a huge amount of volcanic activity in what is now Siberia. It pumped a massive amount of CO2 into the atmosphere causing significant global warming. This may have triggered what has been called The Clathrate Gun. Clathrates melt releasing vast quantities of methane into the air, feeding the global warming loop and releasing more methane….

Dr Krull: The calculations at the Permian Triassic boundary are that about two thousand four hundred gigatons of carbon were released from methane clathrates.

Narration: This resulted in massive global warming, perhaps 10 degrees or more in a couple of decades. So is it possible that the clathrate gun could fire again?

Dr Evelyn Krull: The chances are actually pretty high that this will occur again just simply because we are warming the atmosphere and we are causing shifts right now in these high latitude environments.

Narration: While it could happen again, it’s unlikely to be on the same scale as the Permian extinction. But remember earlier we said that methane levels in the atmosphere have been stable for most of the last decade? Well the latest data is of grave concern.

Dr Etheridge: In the last year and a half, methane is now increasing again in the atmosphere.

Narration: And given its history, methane is certainly a potent player in global warming…

Dr Krull: It might just come up and make everything ten times warmer than before.

Narration: We need to watch this gas very carefully. Although the chance of a methane meltdown is remote, if it happens, this hospitable planet as we know it would cease to exist…

Topics: Environment

  • Reporter: Dr Paul Willis
  • Producer: Ingrid Arnott
  • Researcher: Holly Trueman
  • Camera: Kevin May
    Tom Gelai
    Greg Ashman
  • Sound: Steve Ravich
    Graeme Cornish
    Phil Jinks
  • Editor: Sasha Madon


Dr Andrew Smith
Senior Principal Research Scientist

Dr David Etheridge
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research

Dr Evelyn Krull
Research Scientist and Group Leader
Carbon and Nutrient Cycling
CSIRO Land & Water



Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research

CSIRO Land and Water – Dr Evelyn Krull

Methane Time Bomb

Turning CO2 into Fuel Using Hydrogen generated by HFS innovative technology


CO2 Fuel  .   An interesting report today was published by the CSIRO concerning the use of hydrogen in producing methane gas  for coal fired power stations , as a means of recycling carbon dioxide, reducing the carbon dioxide output and effectively increasing the efficiency of the Coal fired Power station and reducing carbon dioxide pollution.

Turning CO2 into Fuel – CSIRO blog

Turning CO2 into Fuel


It’s a interesting report ,especially as I have a prototype unit operational for use on coal fired power station in Australia’s East Coast.  You can imagine how I felt when I read the headline explaining how this is a new innovative proposal after I submitted my unit back in july 2016.

The major advantage of this system of H.F.S. pty ltd is that is uses the high temperature and thermal energy of the carbon dioxide to power the catalytic reaction involving hydrogen and carbon dioxide to generate Methane gas that is fed back into the power station fuel source  increase the efficiency of the system and require less coal in the first place to provide the required station power output.

The heart of the process is the patented catalyst used to combine Hydrogen and carbon dioxide together to manufacture methane. along with HFS extremely efficient Hydrogen generator technology.

This process  does not eliminate the carbon dioxide output but significantly reduces its annual output and influence on the environment.  Currently we are testing several mechanisms which effectively lock up the output gases which are not used in generating methane gas.

More INFORMATION will follow.

Servicing HHO System for use on cars, trucks generators and boats/ shipping


Following are the instructions for Servicing HHO System  as used by trucks and cars using the HydrogenFuelSystem pty ltd system for hydrogen Generation

  1. One litre of water should last 15 hour s of continuous operation.
  2. Add Distilled water to recycling container to bring it to the full mark –8cm from top of tank.
  3. After 3 months of operation, the liquid should be flushed out and drained. New/Fresh solution should be used.
  4. For trucks and other engines using a 24 volt and 30 amp, supplying one litre of water should last between 5 to 6 hours of continuous operation.
  5. Concentration of 11 grams per litre equates a pH of 13.6. This is the ideal concentration of the solution in the system
  6. In order to make up the solution the ideal way is to make a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide by dissolving 50 grams in 150 mls of water.
  7. With the system running , slowly add small amounts of the concentrated solution to the recycling tank until the current flow in the system measures 28 amp. This is a time consuming process and time shhold be allowed to mix the potassium hyrdroxide solution thoroughly before adding more electrolyte .  The complete operation should take 5 min to set up.
  8. Once operational only water needs to be added to fill the reservoir up to the level of 8 cm from the top of the recycling container