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Showing posts tagged with: MAF sensor




Digital MAP_MAF ENHANCER. The eBay style MAP/MAFs are just simple resistors, which work ok with analog signals, but NOT with the newer frequency modulators. To my knowledge, this is the first combined unit to work with either VOLTAGE OR FREQUENCY (switchable); does away with the need to switch between Highway or City driving like the cheaper stuff. Also, some MAP/MAFS use a voltage increase, not a decrease. Tthis unit is the only one that handles all situations.

The EFIE/MAF combos above are our FIRST choice. That MAF/MAP is designed only for VOLTAGE measurements, not frequency. Generally- most cars and trucks will have at least ONE MAF or MAP that is VOLTAGE adjusted. You can use the above Combos on either one to make it work well. Occasionally, you will run into a car that has both MAF and MAP that are FREQUENCY adjusted. In that rare case- you will need the MAF below in addition to the combo above.

Installation/adjustment instructions included with MAP/MAF enhancer upon purchase.

More details from the manufacturer:

Our new frequency based MAP/MAF enhancer is the first universal MAP/MAF Sensor Enhancer. It can be used for devices that output a frequency to the computer, or devices that send an analog voltage signal.

Frequency Type MAP/MAF Sensors

This device works with any standard 5 volt frequency coming from the device, and will attenuate that frequency based on the position of it’s controlling potentiometers. It will work with frequency type Ford MAP sensors. It has worked with all frequency type MAFs it has been tested on. It’s frequency range is from 30 Hz up to 17 Khz. It has been successfully used on a frequency MAF that operated in the range of 7 Khz to 17 Khz.

Analog MAP/MAF Senosrs

There is also an analog port for use with analog voltage types of MAP or MAF. This is the type of device that are currently controlled with MAP enahancers that you can buy from Ebay. Most analog MAF/MAPs need to have the voltage attenuated in order to lean the air/fuel mix. However, some types of MAP/MAF sensor need to have the voltage increased in order to lean the mix. The Ebay MAP enhancers cannot handle this type of of device. However, ours can. By changing one switch position, this device will change from decreasing the voltage to increasing the voltage.

Digital MAP_MAF ENHANCER. Note, if you like having a “dual edge” MAP enhancer, where you have to flip the switch to change from city to highway driving, then you won’t want to use this board. This device was designed to be set up properly for general use, and then left alone. We don’t feel that having to manually change settings while driving is necessary or desirable.

EFIE: The Acronym for Better Performance of HHO device

Digital MAP_MAF ENHANCER. The EFIE is the acronym for Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer. Why is this important? If you are using HHO generator to catalyze gas efficiency, don’t be surprised if your car is using more fuel as a result. Each vehicle is equipped with a computer (ECU) to ensure that the vehicle is running as it should. When you introduce a gas saver device, the HHO gas is integrated into the engine.

Good so far?

Well, here’s the problem. If the computer in your car feels the extra oxygen injected into its engine, it attempts to balance out the equation by ejecting more fuel. That’s an anathema of what the HHO cell gas savers are trying to do.

The EFIE is the electronic circuit solution to prevent the car from overcompensating. This also makes the maintenance easier. This device has an on and off switch. If you remove the HHO device from your vehicle (particularly during the winter season), you just turn off the electronic fuel injection system so the engine returns to the typical injection mode. When you install back the HHO device, you just set the EFIE back to the “on” position.

We have EFIE for sale to complement your HHO device. What is considered to be normal fuel injection in most engines is actually a very inefficient process resulting to a lot of wastage. The water hybrid will not only boost fuel mileage but also improve the acceleration and efficiency of the engine, resulting to less expense for the maintenance of the car. Ask for our advice on which electronic fuel injection enhancer is best for you.

A Digital EFIE operation and How it works to adjust the fuel map to run hydrogen on engines

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Digital EFIE operation

Digital EFIE operation – Previous EFIE Designs First, lets have a look at how oxygen sensors work. Have a look at Figure A below. Here we have a graph that is a representation of the voltage output of a typical oxygen sensor while the engine is running. Note, that this is only an approximation of a real voltage graph. A real graph would be much more jagged and would not be so regular as this one. But I’m using this graph to make it easier to visualize the concept of what the sensor is doing.

Narrow band oxygen sensors don’t tell the ECU what the air/fuel ratio is. They only tell if the mixture is rich or lean. The line that is marked “.45” volts denotes the make/break point for the sensor’s voltage output. Any voltages that are higher than .45 volts is considered to be rich, and any voltages that are less than .45 volts is considered to be lean. When the sensor produces .45 volts, that is considered to be the correct air/fuel mixture which happens to be 14.7 to 1, air to fuel (by weight). The trouble with narrow band sensors is that they can’t tell the ECU how rich or how lean the mix is. They only tell the ECU “rich” or “lean”. Therefore, in normal operation, they are constantly changing voltages similarly to the graph in Figure A.

Now look at Figure B. The blue line in this graph represents how an EFIE changes the voltage graph of the sensor. As the sensor produces its voltages (as represented by the red graph), the EFIE adds additional voltage. We are showing an EFIE set to 350 millivolts (.35 volts). Therefore the output of the EFIE that goes to the computer will be the voltages in the blue line on the graph. Because higher voltages mean a richer mix to the ECU, the ECU will then lean the mix when it “sees” these “richer” mixture signals coming from the oxygen sensor.

Almost all EFIE designs that are in use today work like the above graph, by adding a voltage to the output of the oxygen sensor. While this approach does work, and has been the only solution available for many years, it has 2 problems that make it not the ideal design.

1. There is a definite limit to the amount of voltage you can add. Notice that if we added .5 volts in the above graph, that the blue line would never dip below the .45 volt line. This is an illegal condition and the ECU will quickly stop using the oxygen sensor if it never sees the voltage transitioning from rich to lean. In actual fact many ECUs need to see voltages lower than .45 volts before it will consider that the mix is lean, and so often you can’t set an EFIE higher than 250 millivolts or so without throwing engine error codes.

2. It takes a relatively large change in the voltage to make a small change in the air/fuel ratio. This wouldn’t be a problem in itself, but coupled with the fact that we can only add a limited amount of voltage, this causes an end result of a small change in air/fuel ratio.

There is one other approach in EFIE design in use today, and that is to use an amplifier. Instead of adding voltage to the sensor’s output, EFIEs of this type will amplify the signal. This, in effect, multiplies the signal. This is a better approach in that the lower voltages are not increased as much as the higher voltages, and you should be able to shift the air/fuel ratio further than with a voltage “adder”. However, it is still limited to the amount it can shift the voltage before all voltages are higher than .45 volts. Also, the amplified voltages at the top of the graph can get quite high, possibly high enough that it will set off alarms in the ECU.

Enter the Digital Narrow Band EFIE

There are other EFIE designs being marketed as “digital”. In each case, as of this writing, the only thing digital about them is the pot used to control the EFIE. It’s a digital pot and will have one of 64 or 128 resistance values, or possibly more depending on the resistor chip design. While this is cool, it makes no difference in the operation of the EFIE. It will still be operating like one of those described in the section above.

Our new Digital Narrow Band EFIE operates completely differently from any other EFIE made. Our new EFIE is called digital, because it’s output is either on or off. Or in other words is either high or low. Or to put in terms the ECU will understand, the output will be either rich or lean. Or to put it in terms of voltage, the output is either going to be .100 volts or .900 volts. This is perfectly acceptable to the ECU and tells it exactly what we want it to see. But because it’s output is only one of 2 states, we rightfully call this device a “digital” device.

So how do we know when to switch from the high state to the low state? We have a comparator in the EFIE that “decides” when to switch states. If the EFIE were to be set so that there was no change in air/fuel ratio, the comparator would be set to .45 volts. This would mean that if the voltage coming in from the sensor were below .45 volts, the output would be low, and likewise if the voltage coming in from the sensor were above .45 volts, the output would be set to high. This would cause a flat response in the ECU where it would provide the same air/fuel ratio as if the EFIE were not involved.

To lower the air/fuel ratio we need to make the mix appear richer. In order to do this, we make the EFIE transition to a high output even though the input is below .45 volts. In other words, instead of using .45 volts as the switching threshold, we use .20 volts (see Figure C).


By adjusting the pot

By adjusting the pot on our new EFIE, we are adjusting at which voltage the comparator will use to determine if the output should be set to high or low. In the graph below, we show 2 comparator voltages for comparison. At .45 volts, we can see that the output will be high about 1/2 of the time. This is the same as it would be without the EFIE. Now notice the line at .2 volts. By setting the EFIE’s comparator at .2 volts, the EFIE output will be low for about 30% of the time and high about 70% of the time. This will make the air/fuel mix look richer than it is, and the ECU will respond by leaning out the mix.

Note that .2 volts is probably too low for your vehicle. You will probably not need to set it this low. We only set it here to make it easy to see the principal involved with our new Digital EFIE. An actual setting would probably be closer to .300 – .325 volts.

Note: When downstream sensors need to be treated, do not use this device. Use an older style, voltage adding type of EFIE. The reason for this is that we’re not certain how the downstream sensor information is used by the ECU. In some cases, we have read the voltages from downstream sensors and they don’t jump up and down as shown in the graphs above. We’ve seen them just float around in the .2 to .3 volt range, not changing much. This is not the behavior that the Digital EFIE was designed for. It may work fine. But we prefer that the ECU just see the same behavior, but shifted up a bit, the way a voltage adding type of EFIE will do. Any of our Narrow Band EFIEs that aren’t labeled “Digital” will work for this application.

Using this device, some people have been able to lean the mix to the point that the engine will die. However, in some cases, it is still necessary to do other treatments to get the leaning results needed. For instance many ECUs use the downstream sensors as part of the air/fuel calcs, and many more will use the downstream sensors to verify the upstream sensors and throw odd engine errors. In these cases, downstream EFIEs are needed to get the needed results. That’s why we created the Digital EFIE & MAP/MAF Combo It has 2 digital EFIEs for the upstream sensors and 2 analog EFIEs for the downstream sensors. This will give you the optimum treatment for each sensor, and is the most powerful solution we’ve seen yet for optimizing your engine for use with HHO or other fuel combustion enhancement technologies.

MAP Sensor, MAF sensor , and Controlling Fuel usage – Important

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MAP sensor MAF sensor and hydrogen fuel systems is the essential information we are attempting to explain in this passage.  

MAF sensor and fuel usage   How to control Fuel input into modern vehicles with CPM.   MAF sensor , MAP Sensor and Controlling Fuel usage – Hydrogen Fuel Systems

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Meta description preview:MAF sensor and fuel usage MAP and MAF sensor adjustment and maximizing fuel efficiency and power for diesel fueled , gasoline / petrol fueled and LPG fueled


MAP/MAF sensor and hydrogen fuel systems is the essential information we are attempting to explain in this passage.  The Tuning of any petrol fuelled engine relies on the tuning of the following sensors so as to attain a Stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.  This is the ratio of the mass of  air injected to  the mass of the fuel injected at STP.  Modern computer fuel injected engines aim to maintain this AFR ratio and monitor several sensors which signal the Engine ECU/PCM to maintain this  ratio.  These sensors are the

  1. mass air flow sensor (MAF),
  2. Air intake sensor
  3. Precat oxygen sensor ( also known as the AFR sensor)
  4. Precat oxygen sensor
  5. Coolant temperature sensor
  6. Manifold Air pressure sensor- (MAP) ( also known as the Boost pressure sensor).

When all sensors are in agreement with loading conditions, the ECU/PCM will fuel injection pulse length to supply sufficient fuel for the loading conditions on the engine.

The MAF sensor adjusts the fuel input measured in Grams of fuel per second.  This measurement is dependent upon the temperature of the of the input air temperature (at constant Pressure P) as with increasing temperature the volume of gas increases according the universal gas law

P.V = n.R.T

Volume of gas

Increasing the temperature (T) of the gas results in the reduction of number of moles (n) of oxygen gas, per litre of air, present for the combustion reaction.  As a result the engine ECU/PCM reduces the mass of fuel / second, injected into the engine so as to maintain its desired stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.    This is also be explained by the fact that Colder air is denser that warm air.

The initial Primary fuel control mechanism is dependent upon the MAF sensor and Air intake sensor , which is then adjusted and trimmed  by the MAP sensor , AFR sensor, oxygen sensor and coolant temperature sensor to attain the desired stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1.

There are a range of MAF sensors that  are designed to measure the air intake volume.

Typically older engines use Hot wire MAF sensors that are analog  sensors and show a change in voltage across the hot wire as more air flows past the sensor. Increasing airflow reduces the temperature of the hot wire and increases its electrical resistance and thus increasing the voltage of the signal sent of the ECU/PVM.  This is a slow response system and has been replaced in modern engines by Digital systems the adjust/ increase the frequency of the signal sent to the ECU/PCM as more air flows past the MAF sensor.

In GM engines there is both a MAP sensor and a MAF sensor which control the engine ECU/PCM.  In the case of GM , Holdens , the MAF sensor is the primary sensor controlling the air/ fuel ratio of the engine and the MAP is a backup sensor on the case of failure of the MAF sensor.

In other older vehicles there is no MAF sensor and the MAP sensor is the primary control sensor  for the stoichiometric air fuel ratio control.

At Idle the air pressure sensor in  the manifold reads a low pressure ( high vacuum ) just as it is on engine deceleration .  This equates to a low loading condition where little fuel is required  and sends a low voltage signal from the MAP to the ECU/CPM.   Conversely under a large load a low pressure and high voltage signal is sent to the ECU/CPM indicating more fuel is required for engine operation.

As can be seen , by adjusting the voltage signal from the MAP sensor to a  lower value , will inform the engine ECU/PCM that less fuel is required because the engine is under less loading.

Now lets consider the electronic fuel enhancer unit as used on vehicles  with hydrogen on demand systems.  Even though a Stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1 is what the engine is tuned to run with, by reducing the amount of fuel used , then the Stoichiometric ratio will raise much higher than 14.7:1 and the computer will try and adjust by adding extra fuel.  To strop that happening , the MAF sensor must adjust to read a lower mass of fuel  by

  1. Reducing  the frequency of the digital MAF sensor
  2. Reducing the output voltage of the analog MAF sensor

Secondly the Ait intake sensor reinforces this by indicating a higher air temperature with lower percentage  oxygen per litre of air to reduce the fuel input

Next the Oxygen / AFR sensor is adjusted to read a lower percentage oxygen in the exhaust — that equates to a rich exhaust and therefore  reduce the amount of fuel so as to get the  Stoichiometric ratio to what the ECU /CPM thinks is  14.7:1

Sensors such as the Coolant temperature sensor and postCat oxygen sensor are fine tuning sensors to get the best possible airfuel ratio

To summarize : The sensors are adjusted to deliver  a very lean mixture that the ECU/CPM is tricked into accepting as the Stoichiometric ratio of  14.7:1.

Is there a danger of using a lean mixture on an engine? The answer is Yes , for  normally fuelled engines without Hydrogen.  However because of the much, much, much, much….higher flame speed of the hydrogen fuel mixture,   and because the reduction in particular matter , and  because of the much cleaner burn with no deposits, and because of the improved conditions of the exhaust gases emitted, then a much higher Stoichiometric ratio can be achieved delivering greater power output and again requiring less fuel energy used per second to maintain the Vehicle speed  / loading .

In the case of older engines without a MAF sensor then its role is taken on by the MAP Sensor.