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Showing posts tagged with: hydrogen

Corona Virus tragedy – drop in oil price and Hydrogen economy

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drop in oil price and Hydrogen. April 22 2020 today , and no reported cases of COVID19 in Perth for the past 4 days. Social Distancing is working.

The recent Covid 19 crisis has had a significant effect on global pollution from reduced operation of Internal combustion engines. It has also affected the Hydrogen economy due to the sudden drop in the price of a barrel of oil the the point where is is now a negative value. THis has had a major impact on the promotion of hydrogen as a fuel .

drop in oil price and Hydrogen. Sales of hydrogen fuel systems has dropped significantly. Fortunately the excellent marketing of these systems before 2020 , means we are financially in a good condition . It has given us more time to look at ways of increasing the output and efficiency of the hydrogen generator systems as well as looking deeper into developing improved Electronic Fuel enhancer modules for diesel and petrol / gasoline fueled vehicles

We have further updated the power supply units so as to reduce wasted electrical energy ( as heat) and increase the gas production of these systems.

We have also developed a new electrolyte solution and dynamic pumping system that further increases the gas production output for a low current input.

The Power supplies use a patented schematic arrangement that is easily incorporated into old and new hydrogen systems to increase the gas output. Unfortunately at present we will not be showing photos of the electronic components until the patent is fully approved. The Pumping system we are using is a high power magnetic rotor pump that has high efficiency as well as having now rotor seals that leak and fail with age. With the new pulsating power supply system powering the pump and cells there is no wasted electrical energy making the solution heat up. This protects the magnetic impeller pump as Heat is the greatest problem with any magnetic assembly,

More to come on the next report

Gen 20 Hydrogen systems with 1500 watt power supplies in diecast aluminium boxes ready for mounting boxes
Gen 20 Hydrogen systems with 1500 watt power supplies

Renewable Hydrogen Strategy launches by Scott Davis 1st August, 2019

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Hydrogen energy council WA. On 19 July, the Western Australian Government released its Renewable Hydrogen Strategy. The Council aims to position the state as a leader in the global renewable hydrogen industry.
The WA Premier, The Hon. Mark McGowan, stated the government will actively support industry, Hydrogen energy council WA, efforts to grow the renewable hydrogen industry. He stated that “The Strategy will look at developing Western Australia’s domestic production capabilities and opportunities for downstream processing.

It will also look at ways to drive local content, so Western Australian suppliers are in the box seat to capitalize on the potential of hydrogen.
As a part of the McGowan Government’s drive for innovation and economic diversification, the Western Australian Renewable Hydrogen Council was established in 2018. The Western Australian Renewable Hydrogen Council informed the development of the strategy.

Whilst the vision is orientated towards an export market, Minister
Alannah MacTiernan recognises that the development of a market will not occur withoutsignificant investment and lead times.

https://www.energycouncil.com.au/analysis/renewable-hydrogen-strategy-launches/

New power Supply/electrolysis cell combination

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New power Supply/electrolysis cell combination

After several months of extensive trials and improvements a  HFS PWM power supply / electro-winning cell combination has finally been released.
New power Supply/electrolysis cell combination.  This “Combination”  has the current control control ability of the older style inefficient PWM Power supply modules without the problems of massive voltage drop on the internal circuitry and overheating / thermal runaway of the old inefficient  systems.
This power supply is designed and proven to work on hydrogen generators , unlike the older PWM units that are designed for motor speed control functions.

Contact Gavan on 0403177183 glknox11@live.com,     https://hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Mosfet as a Hydrogen Fuel System Switch

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This blog is a Product of           https://www.hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Mosfet as a Hydrogen Fuel-System Switch. MOSFET’s make very good electronic switches for controlling loads and in CMOS digital circuits as they operate between their cut-off and saturation regions.

MOSFET’s are relatively simple  electronic devices which being voltage controlled devices , with current draw low in the GS circuit , means that is not going to be a device that is strong consumer of electrical energy.   The figure below basically shows that the MOSFET circuit equates to a simple switch which can be switched on by adjusting  the input voltage to the gate terminal

Hydrogen generators have been proven to work in improving engine power and efficiency . and so there have been a flux of “would be , could be” inventors with little or no knowledge of electro-chemistry, who  having viewed fake reports on YOUTUBE  of work on hydrogen generation , have suddenly become “Experts”  in the Discipline of Chemical Engineering and are convinced in the  “Conspiracy Theory” that tertiary trained Scientists are puppets of the petrochemical industry  and cant be trusted. They are convinced they can solve the worlds energy problem and know that Free energy does exist.

There is no such thing as free energy and hydrogen generation is not an example of free energy. 

Hydrogen does increase the power and efficiency of an internal combustion engine because it increases the Chemical Thermodynamic Efficiency of an internal combustion engine.   

Now if your  want to learn  more about Chemical Thermodynamics click on the following link and Read, Explore, Learn.           

C-02-A-Chemistry-Chapter-11-May-17

These circuits are simple to build and provide an effective means of controlling a hydrogen generating circuit without wasting electrical energy producing a high frequency  modulated circuit that is prone to overheating and failure.

The empirical voltage required  for hydrogen generation in electrolysis is close to 2.2 volts.  A modern vehicle alternator is able to generate between 13.2 and 13.8 volts.  Effectively this means that 6 cells each operating at 2.2 volt uses all the applied  Voltage / input energy of a Modern Battery/ alternator.  Common power supply units used in most hydrogen generators are PWM circuits that Use between 1.5 and 2 volts in controlling the power supplied to these inefficient hydrogen generators such as the  neutral plate systems.

This is tragic as it equates to losing a major percentage of the input energy.  Using the MOSFET Circuits designed by hydrogenfuelsystems pty ltd avoids this loss provides more energy for generating hydrogen Gas.

There are several effective  patented  units which will be shown in a later post  on this site.  There are many less efficient systems which  can be easily identified by developing an understanding of how DC power supply systems work

In the meantime any budding electronics wizz can use the post shown below, linked heading MOSFET as a Switch             

to design you own efficient power supply switch.

 

 

 

MOSFET as a Switch

 

High Current DC switches for use on Hydrogen generator systems

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High Current DC Switch for use on hydrogen fuel systems

High Current DC switches. Mechanical relays used to be the way to switch high currents; these days, we have a whole class of FETs available to do that job.

I use this small board to gate the power supply current to one of my solid-state amplifiers, but it can be used as a gate for almost anything requiring the switching of DC currents up to 100 amps.

With the FET shown here, this board is set up to switch 28 volts at up to 30 amps, and at that load, will drop only half a volt across the FET. When used to gate the power to one of the 23cm 150w amplifiers (10A or so), the loss across the switch is only about 2 tenths of a volt.

Consequently much less electrical energy is lost in the electronic components , leaving more electrical energy available to produce Hydrogen gas / chemical energy

This Post is a simple design that avoids the faulty and defective design used for common Hydrogen generator systems. Typically a PWM power supply is used for Hydrogen generators , but a PWM unit is designed for DC motor control circuits. A PWM is not for electrolysis circuits. Whats the difference you ask……. Good question.

High Current DC switches.

A DC motor has inductive coils which produce a back voltage when operating and reduce their efficiency. BY having a pulse wave modulation system , high frequency DC pulses are produced. This avoids the Back voltage problem and making the DC motor efficiency increase. In an electrolysis circuit there is no such inductive back voltage to reduce the efficiency. Using a PWM unit simply introduces an electronic circuit that uses electrical energy , overheats and limits the efficiency of the hydrogen Generator circuit . SO AGAIN I HEAR YOU ASK , WHY ARE WE USING PWM POWER SUPPLIES. Its great that out ESP is switched on today

Good Question… simple answer. A PWM circuit is an easy control unit to use , especially by so called “EXPERTS in HHO”. Experts who have little more than a Primary school education , and specializing in finger painting. Am I arrogant, sometimes rude, opinionated, Educated, Multi skilled? Yes I am a Teacher with Multiple University degrees , a University Resaerch Scientist and Teacher? I AM an expert in Chemistry, Theoretical Physics, Chemical and Civil Engineering and Education. I know We need to effectively tackle the problem of Global warmng with “REAL” Science not make believe “witch doctor mumbo Jumbo”. My systems are patented and proven. This passage is all about effectively manufacturing Hydrogen and in particular effective power supply systems to produce it

Please read ahead in the following passage and learn how to provide power without wasting input energy. The MOSFET circuits shown can be easily “daisy chained” together in parallel to provide better regulated power. It does not overheat, does not waste energy as a high frequency pulsating supply and works in all conditions . Email me at glknox11@live.com if you have any more questions . Happy reading.

With minor component changes on the board, and the selection of a different FET, the switching of voltages and currents much higher than that can be achieved. Alternatively, additional FETs can be connected in parallel for higher currents, each one sharing the board connections. Configured like this, the FETs must be identical types, preferably from the same lot number.

For the newer 65v LDMOS amplifiers, I added a higher voltage version of this switch to the parts page, capable of handling up to 80v at 50 amps (this switch uses a 100v device.

To operate the switch, all that is required is grounding the ‘on’ port. Current at this port is only 5ma. Un-grounding this port turns the switch back off.

When used with a sequencer or an amplifier control board, this port should be connected to event 2 (so that the amplifier is switched on after the antenna relays have been switched at event 1).

 An extra port is placed on the board to allow the switch to be disabled by an emergency signal (the ‘disable’ port). This port is typically handled by the “kill” function of a control board, which can signal an immediate overriding shutdown during a system fault condition. It does this by pulling the port low.

High Current DC switches. Another application using this extra port is the operation of a remote LNA and it’s bypass relay, which are typically energized by default. Connecting the “on” port to ground, and then the “disable” port to event 1 of a sequencer or control board will allow the LNA to remain on during receive, and then bypassed during the transmit cycle.

The table below the schematic lists the correct R5 values for 12v or 28v operation. Values for 2 different FETs are listed. The voltages shown are approximate ranges, and the ranges can overlap a bit. For example, the 12v configuration would be OK for 9 to 20v, and the 28v values would work well from 20 to about 36v.

High Current DC switches. The kit offered on the parts page (rev 3) is an upgrade to the one shown in the photo above, and can be set up for 12, 28 or 48 volts. The 48v optimization has a range of about 35 to at least 58v. The setup table for this version is shown below the schematic:

Client Questions and Answers regarding using Hydrogen Fuel Systems for cars, trucks generators, pumps

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Questions and Answers hydrogen use with diesel , petrol, gasoline, lpg

Client questions regarding using Hydrogen Fuel Systems for cars, trucks generators, pumps

A useful set of questions was sent to me by an International client.  These questions are possible common queries that I have answered here to help you the prospective client.

  1. Can you forward us a block diagram for connections to system?

This is answered under the heading Installation instructions which can be  searched for on the home page

  • What are other Equipment’s required like MCB, cables ,etc.?

Other equipment used / required are –

  1. double insulated twin core 6 mm cable for cars and 8mm for trucking
  2. 30 amp 12 volt / 24 volt circuit Breaker
  3. 30 amp. 12volt / 24 volt relay switch
  4. 50 amp anderson plug
  5. Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte
  6. Distilled water or rain water
  7. What are requirements for installation?

This is answered under the heading “Installation instructions” which can be  searched for on the home page       https://hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/installation-Instructions-4-1.pdf

  • Any training is required? How can we get it?

Prefer using an auto electrician who can read and follow the installation instructions on the web-page….Personal  Training is available by my company auto electrician in Perth West Australia. Email me at glknox11@live.com questions and answers hydrogen

  • Which are replaceable parts?

Pumps are replaceable, Power supplies are replaceable.  In fact all parts are replaceable  but system has  been designed to last indefinitely unless abused

  • How frequently replacement is needed?

Pumps have a 30,000 hour lifespan but last longer under  normal operating conditions …. MY vehicle pumps are 9 years old and working well after 200,000 km

Electronic Power supplies have no stipulated life span and will last indefinitely   … again my vehicle power supply is 9 years old …. There are no wearing parts

  • How these parts can be available?

I CAN SUPPLY PARTS  AS SOON AS  requested

  • What maintenance is required?

Only maintenance is to use distilled water.   Three teaspoon ( 30 grams) of potassium Hydroxide lasts indefinitely as it is never lost from the solution

Clean out cells every 3 years with dilute vinegar solution

One litre of water lasts 10 hours at 22 amp

questions and answers hydrogen

  • How frequently?

3 yearly replace electrolyte and wash out with dilute vinegar solution

One litre of water lasts 10 hours at 22 amp

  1. What is life of system?

Cells do not wear

11.   How to choose the system size? For example:-

a.       We have an installation with 35KVA connected load and 80 to 90 Kwh per day consumption?

A 35KVA generator is  typically  3.3 litre, turbo charged 3 cylinder vertical in-line engine and is best suited to a Gen 10 system

b.      We have another installation with 20KVA connected load and 400 to 480 Units per day consumption?

A 35 KVA generator is  typically  2.14 litre, turbo charged 3 cylinder vertical in-line engine and is best suited to a Gen 10 system

Gen 10 systems are suited to engines up to 4 litre capacity

Gen 15 systems are suited to engines to 8 litre capacity

Larger generators can be serviced by multiple Gen 15 systems connected In parallel up to 19 litre capacity

Generators greater than 19 litre capacity are available but are custom made systems

Which capacity system is useful?

Ground-Breaking Power supplies Massively Increase Hydrogen gas output

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Ground-Breaking Power supplies Massively Increase Hydrogen gas output

Ground-Breaking Power supplies.  For more information call Gavan 0403177183 glknox11@live.com

glknox@dodo.com.au

https://www.hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Ground-Breaking Power supplies. As part of our ongoing R and D I have dedicated time into improving the power supply and control modules which power the Hydrogen generator cell.

One of the issues of any electrolysis unit for mobile units is the available voltage and to a lesser extent the available current.

Current flow is essential to produce hydrogen  gas and using Faradays laws (1832) it is easy to calculate the amount of electrical current needed to produce a given quantity of Hydrogen gas.  Some of the “experts”  on free energy sites still believe that all they need is a resonant and a low current.  My definition of these “EX SPURTS” is that they are a “Drips” under pressure , – Pressure to prove they actually know somewhat more than a “demented earthworm”.

Excuse  my irritation on free energy morons and Getting back to the essential developments of this post….Power supplies

2 electrons are required for every molecule or hydrogen gas produced and electrical current is the flow of electrons through a conductor… 22 amp of current at 13.2 volts supplies enough electrons for a maximum of 0f 4.2 Litre of Hydrogen / oxygen  gas. Any less energy than that will reduce the gas produced.

When producing a DC power supply of fixed current , we have been conditioned to use electronic components such as constant current PWM devices.  There are several faults of such devices in control o fa DC current supply

  1. The electronics of the circuit introduces an internal resistance into the electrolysis circuit which reduces the available voltage for the unit and therefore the number of available cells that can be used for generating hydrogen gas. The REDOX potential for converting water into hydrogen and oxygen is 1.23 volts.  The internal resistance of the electrolysis produces a back voltage of 0.5 volt  and at least 0.5 volt overvoltage is required per cell to sustain a reasonable current flow through the cell. This equates to at least 2.2 volt is required to generate a useful supply of hydrogen gas from an electrolysis cell.  If we are using 6 cells then  we need 6 times 2.2 volt = 13.2 volt , to generate a reasonable supply of hydrogen gas. IF we have a PWM unit that is using 2 volts due to  internal resistance, that reduces our number of usable cells to 5 and drops the system efficiency by almost 20%.        Far too great a power / energy efficiency loss
  1. The PWM units are frequency modulated devices designed for use on DC motors designed to reduce back voltage loss due to reverse inductance and lenses law. This is not a motor and pointless using a complex frequency generating circuit that uses electrical energy in pretending to reach the resonant frequency of water. – which is several  giga-hertz not kilo-hertz as produced by commercial PWM devices.
  2. The High frequency PWM circuit forces the electrolysis cell to act as a capacitor , constantly charging and discharging and introducing a resistance known as Capacitive reactance.  Capacitive reactance is an internal resistance that uses more of the available input voltage , further putting a strain   on the voltage required for the OXIDATION / REDUCTION reaction producing water.

One solution to this situation is to run DC current into the system and control the current flow simply by the solution concentration. Sounds great but problem is

  1.  as the solution warms the resistance further falls and current flow increases exponentially overloading the vehicle generator/ alternator
  2. There is no effective control of the gas volume produced
  3. The electrolyte boils and steam is not what we want
  4. Thermal runaway changes the chemical thermodynamics of the electrolysis cells and the break down

So some form of circuit is required to limit the current without introducing a load onto the already voltage sensitive circuit.

With this in mind we have developed a relatively simple circuit that limits the voltage loss, does not produce a pointless high frequency output and yet still is able to control the voltage applied to the system so as to control the current flow and not lead to excessive heating of the electrolyte .

This circuit is simple and uses a number of Power FETS and their biasing potentiometers .   Extensive lengthy testing under a variety of temperatures has shown that this simple circuit is far superior , more robust and easier to use than the common PWM and constant current power supplies commonly used .

Hydrogen fuel systems have included this development into their patented design and manufacturing process.  A great advantage of this design is that it can easily and effectively be retrofitted to older systems currently being used  using PWM power controlling devices.

Because it  is patented process the exact schematics of the units will not be released …. Enough to say ,it is a design with will be incorporated  on all  future hydrogenfuelsystems    generator systems.

Kind regards

Gavan Knox

BSc, BEng, BSc, BEd,

For more information call Gavan 0403177183 glknox11@live.com

glknox@dodo.com.au

https://www.hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Fuel saver – frequency multimeter – Tuning Gen 10 Hydrogen fuel system for maximum savings and increased Power

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Fuel saver – frequency multimeter – Tuning Gen 10 Hydrogen fuel system

Fuel saver – frequency multimeter.  Over the  few years I have strived to optimize  the fuel efficiency of my V6 , 3.6 L engine through the use of my patented Hydrogen fuel system

We have achieved massive fuel savings and increased condition and longevity of the engine by using our patented Gen 10 Hydrogen fuel system on the vehicle. Today we Achieve savings of 47% on our family car which is very  satisfying, just using the Hydrogen system and an electronic fuel enhancer module that adjusts  the fuel map ,by adjusting the sensor signals from the following engine sensors

  1. Oxygen sensor

  2. Lambda Sensor

  3. Manifold air pressure sensor

  4. Coolant temperature sensor

  5. Intake air temperature sensor

In the case of the V6 commodore engine there is one other engine sensor which can be adjusted so as to improve the engine operating condition.  This is the Mass intake air flow sensor which is located just before the Throttle body assembly of the engine.  I have never adjusted this sensor as

  1. we have excellent fuel savings already and

  2. we did not have access to a meter which can be used to measure and adjust the Mass intake air flow (MAF) sensor sensor readings

However with the help of fellow university colleagues I made aware of a new device produced by an Australia-wide electronics company called JAYCAR electronics   –     called

Cat III True RMS Auto-ranging 4000 Count DMM with Temperature  Cat Number = QM1551

This device can be used along with our Mass air flow  (MAF) enhancer module to adjust the signal from the mass airflow sensor   on any  vehicle that has a frequency modulated sensor to measure and control and Mass air flow readings sent  to the engine ECU.

IN the past  ( before 2006), the sensors which measure air intake volume were simple Analog  / voltage based systems , and were able to be adjusted by simply putting a resistor in the circuit from the MAF sensor, but these Older style sensors were slow to react , inefficient and easily corrupted making the engine run in Limp Mode.

The Modern , improved and more stable MAF sensor used jn Europe, Australia and ASIA  were the frequency controlled MAF sensors , and now with the New Multimeter from JAYCAR  (Cat Number = QM1551) – It is easily adjusted to further improve the fuel map settings.  Please note that The USA is still a little behind in Using frequency controlled sensors in the MAF Sensor and even the oxygen sensor , as the rest of the world now use… WHY you ask….. well  the USA still has not accepted the metric system as they think they Know Best….. I will leave it to you to come to an opinion on their antiquated choices.

IN the past the MAF sensor is either ignored or the engine ECU is adjusted  be able  to use  a MAFLESS Tune , so as to ignore the MAF sensor readings and their effect on the engine.

IN my case I have found the MAF sensor has been a major sensor for stop start driving , whereas the MAP sensor is the a major sensor for driving at constant Speed

My vehicle economy has been improved from 12.5 L/100 km to 7.2 L/100 km  without using adjustment for the MAF sensor readings. Now with the availability if the New Multimeter from Jacar electronics , the vehicle savings have been further improved which is great fore driving in heavy , stop start  city conditions

For more  information call Gavan 0403177183
BSc, BSc, BEng, MSc, BEd
email glknox11@live.com
https://hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

0403177183

Can Hydrogen Injection save the diesel engine technology and save fuel while increasing power output

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Product of           https://www.hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Can Hydrogen Injection save the diesel engine?

The greatest automotive story this century has been the “Dieselgate” conspiracy. Not only has it brought down the established regime at VW, but it’s shaken the very foundation of diesel powered transportation.

VW has already started rolling out a fix in Europe, which many of us are sceptical about, but are still “negotiating” with legislators in North America. This delay has opened the door for many lesser known technologies to offer a solution; some of them snake oil, some showing real potential.

Image Credit: www.drive.com.au   —– VW emissions  fix

One such technology is hydrogen injection, also commonly known as HHO.

Forty years of hydrogen injection.

Hydrogen injection has been around since the 1970s and works by injecting hydrogen into a modified, internal combustion engine, which allows the engine to burn cleaner with more power and lower emissions. Hydrogen is injected into the air prior to entering the combustion chamber. Hydrogen burns 10 times as fast as diesel and, when mixed with the diesel in the combustion chamber, accelerates the rate at which the diesel burns.

Don’t confuse hydrogen injection with hydrogen fuel cell technology, they’re vastly different:

A hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle is powered by a group of individual fuel cells, known as a fuel cell stack. The electricity generated by the fuel cell stack powers the electric motor that propels the vehicle.
Each fuel cell is an anode, a cathode and a proton exchange membrane sandwiched in between. Hydrogen, from a tank onboard the vehicle, enters into the anode side of the fuel cell. Oxygen, pulled from the air, enters the cathode side. As the hydrogen molecule encounters the membrane, a catalyst forces it to split into electron and proton. The proton moves through the fuel cell stack and the electron follows an external circuit, delivering current to the electric motor and other vehicle components. At the cathode side, the proton and electron join again, and then combine with oxygen to form the vehicle’s only tailpipe emission, water.

Image Credit: Hydrogen Injection Technologies

  • Hydrogen injection systems, such as the aftermarket supplemental hydrogen on-demand system developed by Hydrogen Injection Technologies(HIT), utilize electrolysis to produce hydrogen on-demand. This hydrogen gas is synthesized from the atmosphere and released into the air-intake of any fuel based internal combustion engine. (The system is capable of NRE retrofit to any industrial engine, car, boat, RV, generator etc. up to 20 litres capacity)

Over the past 40 years several tests have been performed to investigate the impact of hydrogen injection on performance and emissions. One such test recently published by the SAE, a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine was tested for its performance and emissions in dual-fuel (hydrogen-diesel) mode.

Using an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) controlled Electronic Gas Injector, the injection timing and duration were varied on a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles.

The injection timing of the diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. By using hydrogen and diesel as a fuel emissions of Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) decrease without exhausting more smoke.
The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained was about 30% at full load for the optimized injection timing of 5° after Gas Exchange Top Dead Center (AGTDC) and for an injection duration of 90°-crank angle. The NOx emission tends to reduce to a lower value of 888 parts per million (ppm) at full-load condition for the optimized injection timing of 5° AGTDC and with an injection duration of 90° compared to neat diesel fuel operation.

Of interest in the VW saga the hydrogen supplemental fuel system developed by Hydrogen Injection Technologies has been field and lab tested (by CEE, Inc. a CARB certified laboratory) as a hardware only solution reducing NOx by over 50%.

Unlike hydrogen fuel cells HHO’s do not require a bulky pressure vessel to store the gas, as it’s a low pressure system that generates hydrogen through electrolysis of water.

As a retrofit it’s legal to run a Hydrogen Cell Generator (also called a Hydrogen Booster cell) to add HHO to the air intake, which can achieve 10% to 30% improvement in fuel consumption (Claimed).

According to Bob Boyce, the original H2O booster cell maker, the efficacy of the system relies on generating quality Hydroxy Gas. This requires a higher spin state of HHO, close to the level of deuterium to achieve consistent fuel consumption gains, and cells that can run 24/7 without heating up. Significant gains are achieved when the HHO bonds to hydro-carbon molecules, thereby completing the burn.

Moving hydrogen generation forward.

In 2014 scientists at Stanford University developed a process using a dry cell 1.5-volt battery to split water into hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature, potentially providing a low-cost method to power fuel cells in zero-emissions vehicles and buildings.

The water splitter is made from the relatively cheap and abundant metals nickel and iron. It works by sending an electric current from a single-cell AAA battery through two electrodes.

According to chemistry professor and lead researcher Hongjie Dai: “This is the first time anyone has used non-precious metal catalysts to split water at a voltage that low.” “It’s quite remarkable, because normally you need expensive metals like platinum or iridium to achieve that voltage.”

Fuel cell vehicles have been widely criticized for their high cost, the lack of infrastructure around their fuel delivery, and their low energy efficiency after accounting for the effort it takes to produce compressed hydrogen (often involving large industrial plants that use an energy-intensive process that combines steam and natural gas).

“It’s been a constant pursuit for decades to make low-cost electrocatalysts with high activity and long durability,” Dai explains. “When we found out that a nickel-based catalyst is as effective as platinum, it came as a complete surprise.”

The nickel-metal/nickel-oxide catalyst, discovered by Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, also requires significantly lower voltages to split water when compared to pure nickel or pure nickel oxide. This new technique is not quite ready for commercial production, though.

“The electrodes are fairly stable, but they do slowly decay over time,” Gong says. “The current device would probably run for days, but weeks or months would be preferable. That goal is achievable based on my most recent results.”
The next step is to improve that decay rate and to test a version that runs on electricity produced by solar energy instead of the AAA battery.

Benefits of HHO

In 2013, after eight years of research, Mark Dansie published an article on www.revolution-green.com where he outlined the following benefits:

  1. HHO reduces carbon monoxide up to 90%. Carbon monoxide is a fuel and HHO acts a catalyst to promote its combustion
    2. HHO decreases hydrocarbons by about 10% to 90%
    3. HHO drops particulate levels, especially organic particulates by 10% to 70%
    4. HHO will reduce EGT (Exhaust gas temperature) from 50 to 150 degree F (depending on engine load)
    5. HHO also decreases mechanical noise (was noticeable in every lab test by all the technicians but not measured)
    6. HHO doesn’t always reduce NOx and in some circumstances increase it (water injection reduces it really well)
    7. Only a small, and very specific amount of HHO is required to achieve significant results. If too much is supplied engine efficiency will be reduced if using electrolysis to produce the HHO
    8. Horsepower is increased between 3% and 12% depending on the engine and Cetane grade of diesel used.
    9. HHO improved and cleaned heavily carbonized engines. Often after weeks of running, fuel efficiency increased through this cleaning process. In one case an improvement of 13% was obtained and when the hydrogen unit was removed it still retained an 11% improvement.
    10. HHO works best at elevated engine speeds. There were no benefits at idling speed.

Although empirical results indicate that on-demand hydrogen injection technology does improve efficiency and reduce emissions, hard test data under recognized European and North American automotive standards is hard to find.

I for one would like to see before-and-after tests conducted under harmonized driving standards, to substantiate the gains claimed by Dansie, Hydrogen Injection Technologies, and other interested parties.

The timing is right! With France reducing incentives for purchasing new diesel vehicles, Euro6c and real world testing looming and VW’s predicament in America, Diesel engines need a new approach to cleaning up diesel exhaust gas emissions to survive the onslaught.

 

by peter els on May 19, 2016 in Emissions control and regulation 2

A Digital EFIE operation and How it works to adjust the fuel map to run hydrogen on engines

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Digital EFIE operation

Digital EFIE operation – Previous EFIE Designs First, lets have a look at how oxygen sensors work. Have a look at Figure A below. Here we have a graph that is a representation of the voltage output of a typical oxygen sensor while the engine is running. Note, that this is only an approximation of a real voltage graph. A real graph would be much more jagged and would not be so regular as this one. But I’m using this graph to make it easier to visualize the concept of what the sensor is doing.

Narrow band oxygen sensors don’t tell the ECU what the air/fuel ratio is. They only tell if the mixture is rich or lean. The line that is marked “.45” volts denotes the make/break point for the sensor’s voltage output. Any voltages that are higher than .45 volts is considered to be rich, and any voltages that are less than .45 volts is considered to be lean. When the sensor produces .45 volts, that is considered to be the correct air/fuel mixture which happens to be 14.7 to 1, air to fuel (by weight). The trouble with narrow band sensors is that they can’t tell the ECU how rich or how lean the mix is. They only tell the ECU “rich” or “lean”. Therefore, in normal operation, they are constantly changing voltages similarly to the graph in Figure A.

Now look at Figure B. The blue line in this graph represents how an EFIE changes the voltage graph of the sensor. As the sensor produces its voltages (as represented by the red graph), the EFIE adds additional voltage. We are showing an EFIE set to 350 millivolts (.35 volts). Therefore the output of the EFIE that goes to the computer will be the voltages in the blue line on the graph. Because higher voltages mean a richer mix to the ECU, the ECU will then lean the mix when it “sees” these “richer” mixture signals coming from the oxygen sensor.

Almost all EFIE designs that are in use today work like the above graph, by adding a voltage to the output of the oxygen sensor. While this approach does work, and has been the only solution available for many years, it has 2 problems that make it not the ideal design.

1. There is a definite limit to the amount of voltage you can add. Notice that if we added .5 volts in the above graph, that the blue line would never dip below the .45 volt line. This is an illegal condition and the ECU will quickly stop using the oxygen sensor if it never sees the voltage transitioning from rich to lean. In actual fact many ECUs need to see voltages lower than .45 volts before it will consider that the mix is lean, and so often you can’t set an EFIE higher than 250 millivolts or so without throwing engine error codes.

2. It takes a relatively large change in the voltage to make a small change in the air/fuel ratio. This wouldn’t be a problem in itself, but coupled with the fact that we can only add a limited amount of voltage, this causes an end result of a small change in air/fuel ratio.

There is one other approach in EFIE design in use today, and that is to use an amplifier. Instead of adding voltage to the sensor’s output, EFIEs of this type will amplify the signal. This, in effect, multiplies the signal. This is a better approach in that the lower voltages are not increased as much as the higher voltages, and you should be able to shift the air/fuel ratio further than with a voltage “adder”. However, it is still limited to the amount it can shift the voltage before all voltages are higher than .45 volts. Also, the amplified voltages at the top of the graph can get quite high, possibly high enough that it will set off alarms in the ECU.

Enter the Digital Narrow Band EFIE

There are other EFIE designs being marketed as “digital”. In each case, as of this writing, the only thing digital about them is the pot used to control the EFIE. It’s a digital pot and will have one of 64 or 128 resistance values, or possibly more depending on the resistor chip design. While this is cool, it makes no difference in the operation of the EFIE. It will still be operating like one of those described in the section above.

Our new Digital Narrow Band EFIE operates completely differently from any other EFIE made. Our new EFIE is called digital, because it’s output is either on or off. Or in other words is either high or low. Or to put in terms the ECU will understand, the output will be either rich or lean. Or to put it in terms of voltage, the output is either going to be .100 volts or .900 volts. This is perfectly acceptable to the ECU and tells it exactly what we want it to see. But because it’s output is only one of 2 states, we rightfully call this device a “digital” device.

So how do we know when to switch from the high state to the low state? We have a comparator in the EFIE that “decides” when to switch states. If the EFIE were to be set so that there was no change in air/fuel ratio, the comparator would be set to .45 volts. This would mean that if the voltage coming in from the sensor were below .45 volts, the output would be low, and likewise if the voltage coming in from the sensor were above .45 volts, the output would be set to high. This would cause a flat response in the ECU where it would provide the same air/fuel ratio as if the EFIE were not involved.

To lower the air/fuel ratio we need to make the mix appear richer. In order to do this, we make the EFIE transition to a high output even though the input is below .45 volts. In other words, instead of using .45 volts as the switching threshold, we use .20 volts (see Figure C).

 

By adjusting the pot

By adjusting the pot on our new EFIE, we are adjusting at which voltage the comparator will use to determine if the output should be set to high or low. In the graph below, we show 2 comparator voltages for comparison. At .45 volts, we can see that the output will be high about 1/2 of the time. This is the same as it would be without the EFIE. Now notice the line at .2 volts. By setting the EFIE’s comparator at .2 volts, the EFIE output will be low for about 30% of the time and high about 70% of the time. This will make the air/fuel mix look richer than it is, and the ECU will respond by leaning out the mix.

Note that .2 volts is probably too low for your vehicle. You will probably not need to set it this low. We only set it here to make it easy to see the principal involved with our new Digital EFIE. An actual setting would probably be closer to .300 – .325 volts.

Note: When downstream sensors need to be treated, do not use this device. Use an older style, voltage adding type of EFIE. The reason for this is that we’re not certain how the downstream sensor information is used by the ECU. In some cases, we have read the voltages from downstream sensors and they don’t jump up and down as shown in the graphs above. We’ve seen them just float around in the .2 to .3 volt range, not changing much. This is not the behavior that the Digital EFIE was designed for. It may work fine. But we prefer that the ECU just see the same behavior, but shifted up a bit, the way a voltage adding type of EFIE will do. Any of our Narrow Band EFIEs that aren’t labeled “Digital” will work for this application.

Using this device, some people have been able to lean the mix to the point that the engine will die. However, in some cases, it is still necessary to do other treatments to get the leaning results needed. For instance many ECUs use the downstream sensors as part of the air/fuel calcs, and many more will use the downstream sensors to verify the upstream sensors and throw odd engine errors. In these cases, downstream EFIEs are needed to get the needed results. That’s why we created the Digital EFIE & MAP/MAF Combo It has 2 digital EFIEs for the upstream sensors and 2 analog EFIEs for the downstream sensors. This will give you the optimum treatment for each sensor, and is the most powerful solution we’ve seen yet for optimizing your engine for use with HHO or other fuel combustion enhancement technologies.

Electronic fuel enhancer needs time to activate

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The electronic fuel enhancer needs time to activate

Many people fail to get the maximum  benefits out of  their hydrogen fuel system. They may be too eager to have everything operational as soon as they get in their vehicle. Drivers need to understand that the electronic fuel enhancer can’t work properly until the Engine Computer Unit (ECU) has gone through its setup tests.

Each time you start the engine the ECU must read the sensors and set the appropriate fuel map for the engine conditions. This process takes  time.

You should NOT switch on the electronic fuel enhancer modules for the first 3 to 4  minutes of operation. This will give the ECU time to conduct its internal tests and setups.

When driving my V6  Holden Captiva I find it takes under 3 minutes to complete the ECU self tests.  With my 3.6Litre  V6 commodore I wait 4 minutes before switching on the electronic fuel enhancer. This gives the ECU time to read the sensor signals and select the engine fuel map that provides maximum power and best economy.

Without allowing enough time for the ECU  to set up the sensors and initial fuel map,  the fuel savings and power increases are harder to attain.

As long as the engine is running, the ECU will continue to monitor the sensors. Depending upon the sensor reading it continually adjusts the fuel map to provide optimum economy and power.engine cross-section working

 

 

Without allowing enough time for the ECU  to set up the sensors and initial fuel map,  the fuel savings and power increases are harder to attain.

As long as the engine is running, the ECU will continue to monitor the one more word sensors. Depending upon the sensor reading it continually adjusts the fuel map to provide optimum economy and power five more words are needed..

MOSFET current controlled circuits for power supplies

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MOSFET current controlled circuits

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

Electrical knowledge

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

MOSFET current controlled circuits are a great way of controlling a current source. This video is an excellent Youtube site for the design and  operation of  a MOSFET.  You can use MOSFET circuit as a current controlling circuit.

This is a great video.  The video explains the functionality of MOSFETs but also explains how to actually use them in a real-world application.

If you have  limited Electrical knowledge, this video is most informative and easily understood  information. The information is  backed up with fact/cheat sheets on the  website . THis  is really a nice touch.

PWM power supply Explained

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PWM power supply explained Contrary to popular belief on places like “ Green Source” the real purpose of a PWM controller is reduce the back emf of the load and provide more usable energy to the electrolysis reaction. All too often these so called experts with little or no traditional scientific training regurgitate half truths and pure ignorance to pretend to know what they are talking about and win the confidence of the scientifically untrained masses A PWM power supply is originally designed as a motor speed control ,which it is well designed for and then put to use as an electrolysis control unit as it is able to fix the current at a given value.

This is ideal to lock in the current drawn , and reduce an excessive load on the vehicle electrical system….. but …. A PWM unit also is designed to reduce back voltage as produced by a n inductive load of a motor and produce a more efficient series of square waves to minimize energy wastage.

However an electrolysis system does not have an inductive load and has no back voltage to overcome and so the extra circuitry of the PWM and square wave production is simply a waste of electronics , a waste of energy and a waste of money

Ideally the best circuit to use In this event is a MOSFET circuit which allows the current to be controlled and locked at a predetermined values and not waste energy or your money on expensive circuitry that dissipates energy as heat to the expense of producing hydrogen

There are many MOSFET power control circuits that Are shown on youtube and google , that are a fraction the price of the expensive commercially available circuits such as the MXA 067, that can be easily built and used to control the HHO systems

In Fact H.F.S has developed a very efficient and simple circuit to control the Systems which we manufacture. Some people will tell you they are trying to make the High frequency PWM produce resonance within the electrolysis cell.

These PWM units oscillate at 100 to 5000 hertz… which is a far cry from the required resonant frequency of several billion hertz. Moral to the story ,,, dont waste your money .

PWMs explained

PWM power supply explained Contrary to popular belief on places like “ Green Source” the real purpose of a PWM controller is reduce the back emf of the load and provide more usable energy to the electrolysis reaction.

All too often these so called experts with little or no traditional scientific training regurgitate half truths and pure ignorance to pretend to know what they are talking about and win the confidence of the scientifically untrained masses A PWM power supply is originally designed as a motor speed control ,which it is well designed for and then put to use as an electrolysis control unit as it is able to fix the current at a given value.

This is ideal to lock in the current drawn , and reduce an excessive load on the vehicle electrical system….. but …. A PWM unit also is designed to reduce back voltage as produced by a n inductive load of a motor and produce a more efficient series of square waves to minimize energy wastage. However an electrolysis system does not have an inductive load and has no back voltage to overcome and so the extra circuitry of the PWM and square wave production is simply a waste of electronics , a waste of energy and a waste of money

Ideally the best circuit to use In this event is a MOSFET circuit which allows the current to be controlled and locked at a predetermined values and not waste energy or your money on expensive circuitry that dissipates energy as heat to the expense of producing hydrogen

There are many MOSFET power control circuits that Are shown on youtube and google , that are a fraction the price of the expensive commercially available circuits such as the MXA 067, that can be easily built and used to control the HHO systems In Fact H.F.S has developed a very efficient and simple circuit to control the Systems which we manufacture.

Some people will tell you they are trying to make the High frequency PWM produce resonance within the electrolysis cell.. These PWM units oscillate at 100 to 5000 hertz… which is a far cry from the required resonant frequency of several billion hertz. Moral to the story ,,, dont waste your money .

Costly inefficient PWM Power supply running hydrogen Fuel systems

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Costly inefficient PWM Power supply,  whilst many experimenters are attempting to manufacture Hydrogen gas for Hydrogen on demand systems used in Vehicles , most if not all are falling into the same hole of wasting excessive electrical energy by using A DC motor speed control unit for a purpose for which it was not  designed.  The DC Motor speed control unit is readily available  and is adjustable in output, but it was not designed for electrolysis units .  They waste a large percentage of the limited input electrical energy as heat energy – energy that is better put to use in converting water into hydrogen gas.

Much is heard about the unit being a pulse width modulated unit and how a high frequency square  wave is produced to reduce back EMF and avoid energy wastage.  Yes Back EMF is a problem in any electrical motor and reducing it does make the motor speed control more effective and efficient, but this is not a motor assembly .  Back EMF is not an issue in electrolysis and so square wave generation is a pointless activity.  It simply means a more expensive control unit, wasted energy in unrequired electronics and a reason to further financially exploit a small community of individuals trying to gain from Hydrogen generation… The Cost of power supply controls has increased exponentially over the past 6years.  Compare the cost of so called HHO control units and the cost of far more complex and superior Solar power PWM control devices…. These superior solar power control PWM units are more substantial, superior units that can be modified for use in HHO systems and are a fraction the cost of the DC motor speed control units.

However even these solar devices are PWM and have specifications that are unneeded   for hydrogen generation systems

So what is the solution?

Well a control system is required that can limit the current flow into a system and fix the load in the engine electrics. However a much simpler switching system that uses MOSFETS , Power transistors , aluminium heat sinks,  Biasing resistors and potentiometers far more efficient , cheaper / simpler system  for powering the hydrogen generator.   We have done away with the square wave generation procedure to make the control unit simpler , less prone to heat damage and thermal runaway and allow more electrical energy be used to produce Chemical energy in the form of Hydrogen.

A major advantage of this new control unit is that it is simple to construct and Use and is inexpensive.  Why pay $150 for a deficient PWM motor speed control unit , from Malaysia when a simple MOSfet circuit costing under $10 can do a better job.

We at Hydrogen fuel systems pty Ltd have investigated a number of such control units and are in the final stages of selecting the Best …. Remember the old ”KISS” principle….. KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID!

Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte – handling of powerful chemicals

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Handling the electrolyte Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide electrolyte – handling of powerful chemicals – This electrolyser design uses potassium hydroxide solution in the electrolyser itself and fresh/ distilled  water in the water tank as the potassium hydroxide is a true catalyst which assists the electrolysis process but does not get used up in the reaction. The Oxidation / Reduction Potential of Potassium Hydroxide is lowest of all Suitable electrolytes , so that the maximum volume of Hydrogen and oxygen gas can be produced using Battery voltage.

Potassium hydroxide is a strong caustic material and considerable care needs to be taken when preparing it.   These  instructions should be followed carefully in every respect when handling potassium hydroxide and preparing stainless steel for use in an electrolyser:

Mixing Potassium Hydroxide Solution
Potassium hydroxide is also known as “caustic potash” and it is highly caustic.   Consequently, it needs to be handled carefully and kept away from contact with skin, and even more importantly, eyes.   If any splashes come in contact with you, it is very important indeed that the affected area be immediately rinsed off with large amounts of running water and if necessary, the use of vinegar which is s week acid id used to neutralize the caustic liquid

This electrolyser design requires you to make up a weak solution of potassium hydroxide.   This is done by adding small amounts of the potassium hydroxide to distilled water held in a plastic container.   The container must not be glass as most glass is unable to handle the large amount of heat produced by mixing Potassium Hydroxide with water… Strongly Exothermic dissolution reaction
Potassium hydroxide, also called KOH or “Caustic Potash”, can be bought in small quantities from soap making supply outlets.   While Potassium hydroxide is the very best electrolyte, it needs to be treated with care:

Always store it in a sturdy, air-tight container which is clearly labelled “DANGER! – Potassium Hydroxide”.   Keep the container in a safe place, where it can’t be reached by children, pets or people who won’t take any notice of the label.   If your supply of KOH is delivered in a strong plastic bag, then once you open the bag, you should transfer all its contents to sturdy, air-tight, plastic storage containers, which you can open and close without risking spilling the contents.   Hardware stores sell large plastic buckets with air tight lids that can be used for this purpose.

When working with dry KOH flakes or granules, wear safety goggles, rubber gloves, a long sleeved shirt, socks and long trousers.   Also, don’t wear your favorite clothes when handling KOH solution as it is not the best thing to get on clothes.   It is also no harm to wear a face mask which covers your mouth and nose.   If you are mixing solid KOH with water, always add the KOH to the water, and not the other way round, and use a plastic container for the mixing, preferably one which has double the capacity of the finished mixture.   The mixing should be done in a well-ventilated area which is not draughty as air currents can blow the dry KOH around.

When mixing the electrolyte, never use warm water.   The water should be cool because the chemical reaction between the water and the KOH generates a good deal of heat.   If possible, place the mixing container in a larger container filled with cold water, as that will help to keep the temperature down, and if your mixture should “boil over” it will contain the spillage.   Add only a small amount of KOH at a time, stirring continuously, and if you stop stirring for any reason, put the lids back on all containers.

If, in spite of all precautions, you get some KOH solution on your skin, wash it off with plenty of running cold water and apply some vinegar to the skin.   Vinegar is acidic, and will help balance out the alkalinity of the KOH.   You can use lemon juice if you don’t have vinegar to hand – but it is always recommended to keep a bottle of vinegar handy.

Calculation of maximum Hydrogen output

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Calculation of maximum Hydrogen output.  Question:  -How to calculate the amount of Hydrogen (HHO) that a generator can produce?

Answer:   Generation of Hydrogen is based on electrolysis, which is governed by the laws of physics. This process was studied almost 200 years ago by Michael Faraday, who subsequently published “Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis”.

The laws state that an electrolysis cell, operating at a certain current (amps) will produce a known amount of HHO.

The two main considerations are the number of electrode plates and the actual ‘active’ surface area. The active area is the surface area of the plates minus the area of the gaskets.

For example, if a Gen 10 hfs generator has cell figuration plate area of 2000 square cm  ( Gen 15, Gen 20 and Gen 30 systems have increased plate area configuration)

Michael Faraday also demonstrated that electrolysis cells can support up to 0.084 amps per square cm without overheating. This is the standard used to design a HHO generator.
Therefore, the 2000 square cm cell can support up to 168 amps of current which is far in excess of a cars alternator / battery capacity.

We recommend no more  than 20 amp output

Calculation of maximum Hydrogen output.  The number of electrolysis cells  is also very important. Too few and the generator will have poor HHO production and overheat. Too many Cells  and the generator may not work at all.

For 12 volt vehicles, the ideal number of electrolysis cells within the generator is 6 , so as to use up all of the available voltage

As a mathematical simplification of Faraday’s laws, a HFS Generator will produce 90 ml/minute of HHO per 1 amp of current

So, the generator in our example will have a maximum output of 1.8 LPM (90 ml x 20 amps)

Effect of hydrogen and gasoline fuel blend on the performance of SI engine

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This paper presents the effects of introducing hydrogen with gasoline on the engine performance like power, torque and efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine. Hydrogen is found to be one of the important energy substitutes of the future era. Hydrogen as a renewable energy source provides the potential for a sustainable development, particularly in the automotive and energy storing sector. Hydrogen driven vehicles reduce both local as well as global emissions. By changing the amount of hydrogen percentage with gasoline, the data has been recorded and analyzed to achieve the economical blend percentage of hydrogen and gasoline to obtain the best performance of the SI engine.

INTRODUCTION

Hydrogen is the fuel of the future. It is an energy carrier that can be used in internal combustion (IC) engines producing no greenhouse gas emissions virtually when combusted with oxygen. The only emission is water vapor. It is a carbon-free energy carrier, and likely to play an important role in a world with severe constraints on greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen has extremely wide ignition limits. This allows a spark ignition engine to operate on hydrogen with very little throttling. Stoichiometric hydrogen air mixture burns seven times as fast as the corresponding gasoline air mixture. This gives great advantage in IC engines, leading to higher engine speeds and greater thermal efficiency (Ganeshan, 2007). The potential of using hydrogen for small horsepower SI engines was evaluated and compared with compressed natural gas (CNG). Another study dealt on certain drawbacks of hydrogen fuelled SI engines, such as high NOx emission and small power output to determine the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuelled SI engines. The design features and the current operational limitations associated with the hydrogen fuelled SI engines were reviewed (Karim, 2000). The onset of knock in hydrogen fuelled SI engine applications was investigated (Li and Karim, 2004). Several problems of the injectors (leakage, unequal response time-opening delay and poor durability) as available then, have mostly been solved nowadays due to the worldwide increased research on gaseous injection systems (natural gas, LPG, etc). To run a hydrogen engine, the mixture formation of air and hydrogen need not to be controlled precisely (Das, 1990). Consequently, simple systems such as an external mixture system with a gas carburetor can be used for the fuel supply. This system is firstly implemented on the tested engine. However, combustion process can be controlled completely only with an injection system and an electronic control unit (electronic management system), as used for all new gasoline engines. Hence, the carburetor is discarded to be replaced by a gas injection system in the inlet manifold, allowing multi-point *Corresponding author. Email: raviranjan1611@gmail.com. 138 J. Pet. Technol. Altern. Fuels Figure 1. Experimental setup. Table 1. Specifications of the test engine. Items Engine (gasoline) Mark 231H Engine type Four stroke, Three cylinder Bore (mm) 66.5 Stroke (mm) 72 Compression ratio 9.2/1 Fuel system Petrol (MPFI) cooling Water cooled Engine working temperature (°C) 120 sequential injection of the gaseous hydrogen fuel in each inlet channel just before the inlet valve. For gaseous fuels, an additional and important advantage is better resistance to backfire (explosion of the air/fuel mixture in the inlet manifold) (Sorusbay and Veziroglu, 1988; Kondo et al.,1996; Lee et al., 1995; Guo et al., 1999). The danger of backfire is eliminated with a sequential timed multipoint injection of hydrogen and the corresponding electronic management system. As a result, the power output of the engine is increased. The optimization of the engine parameters was studied. The ignition timing has a strong influence on efficiency of the engine; it should be regulated adequately as a function of the mixture richness (Verhelst and Sierens, 2001). Moderate engine performance is obtained in hydrogen combustion with a special injector that is equipped with a leak structure and a glow plug (Ikegami et al., 1982). The smoke emission reduces from 4.8 BSN to 0.3 BSN with simultaneous reduction of NOX when using the hydrogen in dual fuel mode. Braking thermal efficiency increases from around 23.59 to 29% with optimized injection starting and duration. The emission such as CO, CO2 and HC is reduced drastically. The NOX emission decreases from 6.14 g/kWh to 3.14 g/kW-h at full load. The reduction is due to efficient combustion resulting from the hydrogen combustion (Sarvanan et al., 2007). The limit of flammability of hydrogen varies from an equivalence ratio of 0.1 to 7.1; hence the engine can be operated with a wide range of air fuel ratio (Yi et al., 2000). Hydrogen fuelled engine efficiency is superior to gasoline engine, especially at small partial loads operating conditions, due to a better combustion process and load qualitative adjustment method. The level of pollutant emissions decreases at the hydrogen fuelling. The exhaust gases do not contain CO2 or lots of polluting substances provided by classic engines such as CO, HC, particles and lead compounds (Negurescu et al., 2012). Tyagi and Ranjan (2013) minimize exhaust pollutant by heating catalytic converter. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of the gasoline-hydrogen blended fuel on engine power and torque, to quantify engine performance and to find the best hydrogen and gasoline fuel blend ratio for SI engines.

Conclusion

Combustion characteristics of a hydrogen fueled SI engine with gasoline-hydrogen blends under seven different ignition timings, 70% wide open throttle(WOT) and lean mixture condition were investigated, and the important results were drawn. The power output of the engine is increased without danger of backfire, with a timed multiport fuel injection system of hydrogen and the corresponding electronic management system. The optimization of the engine parameters were discussed in terms of power output, brake mean effective pressure, torque output and effective thermal efficiency. The injection of hydrogen at the beginning of the compression stroke has shown smooth engine running at stoichiometric air fuel ratio without abnormal burning. The advantage of lean mixtures to operate at low load conditions without a throttle valve is found to be valid. For specific ignition timing, the brake mean effective pressure and the effective thermal efficiency increased while the combustion durations decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in gasoline hydrogen blend. There is a significant influence of Ignition timing on engine performance and combustion. With the decrease in time intervals from the ending of fuel injection to the ignition start, brake mean effective pressure and effective thermal efficiency increased

REFERENCES

Das LM (1990). Fuel induction techniques for a hydrogen operated engine. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 15:823-42. Ganeshan V (2007). Internal Combustion engines: third edition, Tata McGraw-hill, P. 212. Guo LS, Lu HB, Li JD (1999). A hydrogen injection system with solenoid valves for a four-cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 24:377-382.