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Viewing posts categorised under: Scientist

Hydrogen Gains verification from the ” Toman Institute” UK

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The Toman Institute is a UK / Irish Based institute which has just released reports and findings on the proven savings of using Hydrogen gas at the 12.5 % ratio, so as to produce fuel savings and reduction of emissions of carbon oxides and particular matter from the exhaust of a diesel fueled engine.

It has been reported that hydrogen injection into the air intake of the diesel engine, pre turbocharger, increases the ignition temperature of the fuel as well as increasing the flame speed and rate of combustion of diesel fuel. This sharp increase in combustion rate results in the fuel being totally burnt at the top of the combustion stroke at a higher temperature so that there is less NOX emissions .

It was found this was very successful at low engine speed in built up city driving

At Higher speeds on the open road it was found that the hydrogen worked with the turbocharger to provide extra oxygen so as to reduce the NOX emissions as well as delivering more power , fuel savings and reduced carbon particular emissions.

Data from these tests will be uplaoded to this website post as soon as it has been released by the Toman Institute.

Mosfet as a Hydrogen Fuel System Switch

diesel, economy, fuel costs, fuel savings, gasoline, gavan knox, hydrogen, hydrogen fuel system, hydrogen fuel systems for cars, hydrogen fuel systems for trucks, hydrogen fuel systems power supply, hydrogenfuelsystem, new agents wanted for hydrogen fuel systems, patent, petrol, savings, scientist, shipping, trucking, Uncategorized, water fuel

This blog is a Product of           https://www.hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Mosfet as a Hydrogen Fuel-System Switch. MOSFET’s make very good electronic switches for controlling loads and in CMOS digital circuits as they operate between their cut-off and saturation regions.

MOSFET’s are relatively simple  electronic devices which being voltage controlled devices , with current draw low in the GS circuit , means that is not going to be a device that is strong consumer of electrical energy.   The figure below basically shows that the MOSFET circuit equates to a simple switch which can be switched on by adjusting  the input voltage to the gate terminal

Hydrogen generators have been proven to work in improving engine power and efficiency . and so there have been a flux of “would be , could be” inventors with little or no knowledge of electro-chemistry, who  having viewed fake reports on YOUTUBE  of work on hydrogen generation , have suddenly become “Experts”  in the Discipline of Chemical Engineering and are convinced in the  “Conspiracy Theory” that tertiary trained Scientists are puppets of the petrochemical industry  and cant be trusted. They are convinced they can solve the worlds energy problem and know that Free energy does exist.

There is no such thing as free energy and hydrogen generation is not an example of free energy. 

Hydrogen does increase the power and efficiency of an internal combustion engine because it increases the Chemical Thermodynamic Efficiency of an internal combustion engine.   

Now if your  want to learn  more about Chemical Thermodynamics click on the following link and Read, Explore, Learn.           


These circuits are simple to build and provide an effective means of controlling a hydrogen generating circuit without wasting electrical energy producing a high frequency  modulated circuit that is prone to overheating and failure.

The empirical voltage required  for hydrogen generation in electrolysis is close to 2.2 volts.  A modern vehicle alternator is able to generate between 13.2 and 13.8 volts.  Effectively this means that 6 cells each operating at 2.2 volt uses all the applied  Voltage / input energy of a Modern Battery/ alternator.  Common power supply units used in most hydrogen generators are PWM circuits that Use between 1.5 and 2 volts in controlling the power supplied to these inefficient hydrogen generators such as the  neutral plate systems.

This is tragic as it equates to losing a major percentage of the input energy.  Using the MOSFET Circuits designed by hydrogenfuelsystems pty ltd avoids this loss provides more energy for generating hydrogen Gas.

There are several effective  patented  units which will be shown in a later post  on this site.  There are many less efficient systems which  can be easily identified by developing an understanding of how DC power supply systems work

In the meantime any budding electronics wizz can use the post shown below, linked heading MOSFET as a Switch             

to design you own efficient power supply switch.




MOSFET as a Switch


High Current DC switches for use on Hydrogen generator systems

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High Current DC Switch for use on hydrogen fuel systems

High Current DC switches. Mechanical relays used to be the way to switch high currents; these days, we have a whole class of FETs available to do that job.

I use this small board to gate the power supply current to one of my solid-state amplifiers, but it can be used as a gate for almost anything requiring the switching of DC currents up to 100 amps.

With the FET shown here, this board is set up to switch 28 volts at up to 30 amps, and at that load, will drop only half a volt across the FET. When used to gate the power to one of the 23cm 150w amplifiers (10A or so), the loss across the switch is only about 2 tenths of a volt.

Consequently much less electrical energy is lost in the electronic components , leaving more electrical energy available to produce Hydrogen gas / chemical energy

This Post is a simple design that avoids the faulty and defective design used for common Hydrogen generator systems. Typically a PWM power supply is used for Hydrogen generators , but a PWM unit is designed for DC motor control circuits. A PWM is not for electrolysis circuits. Whats the difference you ask……. Good question.

High Current DC switches.

A DC motor has inductive coils which produce a back voltage when operating and reduce their efficiency. BY having a pulse wave modulation system , high frequency DC pulses are produced. This avoids the Back voltage problem and making the DC motor efficiency increase. In an electrolysis circuit there is no such inductive back voltage to reduce the efficiency. Using a PWM unit simply introduces an electronic circuit that uses electrical energy , overheats and limits the efficiency of the hydrogen Generator circuit . SO AGAIN I HEAR YOU ASK , WHY ARE WE USING PWM POWER SUPPLIES. Its great that out ESP is switched on today

Good Question… simple answer. A PWM circuit is an easy control unit to use , especially by so called “EXPERTS in HHO”. Experts who have little more than a Primary school education , and specializing in finger painting. Am I arrogant, sometimes rude, opinionated, Educated, Multi skilled? Yes I am a Teacher with Multiple University degrees , a University Resaerch Scientist and Teacher? I AM an expert in Chemistry, Theoretical Physics, Chemical and Civil Engineering and Education. I know We need to effectively tackle the problem of Global warmng with “REAL” Science not make believe “witch doctor mumbo Jumbo”. My systems are patented and proven. This passage is all about effectively manufacturing Hydrogen and in particular effective power supply systems to produce it

Please read ahead in the following passage and learn how to provide power without wasting input energy. The MOSFET circuits shown can be easily “daisy chained” together in parallel to provide better regulated power. It does not overheat, does not waste energy as a high frequency pulsating supply and works in all conditions . Email me at glknox11@live.com if you have any more questions . Happy reading.

With minor component changes on the board, and the selection of a different FET, the switching of voltages and currents much higher than that can be achieved. Alternatively, additional FETs can be connected in parallel for higher currents, each one sharing the board connections. Configured like this, the FETs must be identical types, preferably from the same lot number.

For the newer 65v LDMOS amplifiers, I added a higher voltage version of this switch to the parts page, capable of handling up to 80v at 50 amps (this switch uses a 100v device.

To operate the switch, all that is required is grounding the ‘on’ port. Current at this port is only 5ma. Un-grounding this port turns the switch back off.

When used with a sequencer or an amplifier control board, this port should be connected to event 2 (so that the amplifier is switched on after the antenna relays have been switched at event 1).

 An extra port is placed on the board to allow the switch to be disabled by an emergency signal (the ‘disable’ port). This port is typically handled by the “kill” function of a control board, which can signal an immediate overriding shutdown during a system fault condition. It does this by pulling the port low.

High Current DC switches. Another application using this extra port is the operation of a remote LNA and it’s bypass relay, which are typically energized by default. Connecting the “on” port to ground, and then the “disable” port to event 1 of a sequencer or control board will allow the LNA to remain on during receive, and then bypassed during the transmit cycle.

The table below the schematic lists the correct R5 values for 12v or 28v operation. Values for 2 different FETs are listed. The voltages shown are approximate ranges, and the ranges can overlap a bit. For example, the 12v configuration would be OK for 9 to 20v, and the 28v values would work well from 20 to about 36v.

High Current DC switches. The kit offered on the parts page (rev 3) is an upgrade to the one shown in the photo above, and can be set up for 12, 28 or 48 volts. The 48v optimization has a range of about 35 to at least 58v. The setup table for this version is shown below the schematic:

Fuel savings – Fuel Map and Hydrogen on demand systems for engines

economy, fuel savings, gavan knox, hydrogen, hydrogen fuel system, hydrogen fuel systems for cars, hydrogen fuel systems for trucks, hydrogen fuel systems power supply, hydrogenfuelsystem, new agents wanted for hydrogen fuel systems, patent, scientist, water fuel

Fuel savings – Fuel Map and Hydrogen on demand systems for engines

Received an interesting question today about how hydrogen systems  use the fuel map to deliver fuel savings.

My response was as follows

Hello Rob

The electronic fuel enhancer module is designed to alter the sensor signals from the

  1. Oxygen sensor

  2. Lambda sensor

  3. Manifold air pressure sensor

  4. Coolant temperature sensor

  5. Intake air temperature sensor

And therefore force the engine ecu to choose a leaner fuel map from its registry , which uses less fuel and delivers more power with a leaner mixture.

The advantage of the enhancer module is that it is only operational when it is powered up. Turning off the ower to the unit allows the engine to return to its normal “inefficient” Fuel map.

Running an engine on Hydrogen and oxygen allows the engine to run leaner with far more power with less fuel input.  The fuel enhancer forces the engine to inject less fuel and further makes it run leaner .  Using Hydrogen injection on a lean fuel map stops the engine overheating due to a number of factors , especially

The enormous increase in the flame speed of the process using hydrogen with the fuel and leading to complete combustion of a smaller fuel charge input followed by adiabatic expansion down the power stroke which in fact cools the engine from within.


Hydrogen and the fuel enhancer work together to use the best fuel-map of the ECU to deliver fuel savings and power increase.

More information is visible on the company website https://www.hydrogenfuelsystems.com.au

Please leave comments below at the bottom of this page

Kind regards

Gavan Knox

Manging Director Hydrogen Fuel Systems Pty Ltd



BSc (Physics, Chemistry), BEng (civil), BEd (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Engineering)

Engine Air Temperature Sensor

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Engine Air Temperature Sensor

Engine Air Temperature Sensor

The Intake Air Temperature sensor (IAT) monitors the temperature of the air entering the engine. The engine computer – PCM –  needs this information to estimate air density so it can balance air air/fuel mixture. Colder air is more dense than hot air, so cold air requires more fuel to maintain the same air/fuel ratio. The PCM changes the air/fuel ratio by changing the length (on time) of the injector pulses.

On pre-OBD II vehicles (1995 & older), this sensor may be called an Air Charge Temperature (ACT) sensor, a Vane Air Temperature (VAT) sensor, a Manifold Charging Temperature (MCT) sensor, a Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) sensor or a Charge Temperature Sensor (CTS).


The Intake Air Temperature sensor is usually mounted in the intake manifold so the tip will be exposed to air entering the engine. On engines that use mass airflow (MAF) sensors to monitor the volume of air entering the engine, the MAP sensor will also have an air temperature sensor built into it. Some engines may also have more than one air temperature sensor (two if it has a split intake manifold or separate intake manifolds on a V6 or V8 engine).

The air temperature sensor is a thermistor, which means its electrical resistance changes in response to changes in temperature.

It works the same as a coolant sensor. The PCM applies a reference voltage to the sensor (usually 5 volts), then looks at the voltage signal it receives back to calculate air temperature. The return voltage signal will change in proportion to changes in air temperature. Most air temperature sensors are negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors with high electrical resistance when they are cold, but the resistance drops as they heat up. However, some work in the opposite manner. They are positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors that have low resistance when cold, and increase in resistance as they heat up. The changing resistance of the sensor causes a change in the return voltage back to the PCM.

On older pre-OBD II applications (1995 & older vehicles), the signal from the air temperature sensor may also be used to turn on the cold start injector (if used) if the outside air temperature is cold. On some of these older applications, the air temperature sensor signal may also be used to delay

the opening of the EGR valve until the engine warms up.

Air temperature sensors are also used in Automatic Climate Control systems. One or more air temperature sensors are used to monitor the temperature of the air inside the passenger compartment, as well as the outside air temperature. The climate control system usually has its own separate outside air temperature sensor located outside the engine compartment so engine heat does not affect it. The outside air temperature sensor will usually be mounted behind the grille or in the cowl area at the base of the windshield.). Most of these sensors work exactly the same as the engine air temperature sensor. But some use an infrared sensor to monitor the body temperature of the vehicle’s occupants.


An air temperature sensor can sometimes be damaged by

backfiring in the intake manifold. Carbon and oil contamination inside the intake manifold can also coat the tip of the sensor, making it less responsive to sudden changes in air temperature. The air temperature sensor itself may also degrade as a result of heat or old age, causing it to respond more slowly or not at all.

Sensor problems can also be caused by poor electrical connections at the sensor. A loose or corroded wiring connector can affect the sensor’s output, as can damaged wiring in the circuit between the sensor and PCM.


If the intake air temperature sensor is not reading accurately, the PCM may think the air is warmer or colder than it actually is, causing it to miscalculate the air/fuel mixture. The result may be a lean or rich fuel mixture that causes driveability symptoms such as poor idle quality when cold, stumble on cold acceleration, and surging when the engine is warm.

If the engine computer uses the air temperature sensor input to turn on a cold start injector, and the sensor is not reading accurately, it may prevent the cold start injector from working causing a hard cold start condition.

A faulty air temperature sensor may also affect the operation of the ERG valve is the PCM uses air temperature to determine when the EGR valve opens (on most, it uses the coolant temperature input).

On OBD II application (1996 & newer vehicles), a faulty air temperature sensor may prevent the Evaporative (EVAP) Emissions System Monitor from completing. This can prevent a vehicle from passing a plug-in OBD II test (because all the OBD II monitors must run before it can pass the test). The EVAP monitor will only run when the outside temperature is within a certain range (not too cold and not too hot, as a rule).

A faulty air temperature sensor that is reading warmer than normal will typically cause in a lean fuel condition. This increases the risk of detonation and lean misfire (which hurts fuel economy and increases emissions).

A faulty air temperature sensor that is reading colder than normal will typically cause a rich fuel condition. This wastes fuel and also increases emissions.

Sometimes what appears to be a fuel mixture balance problem

due to a faulty air temperature sensor is actually due to

something else, like an engine vacuum leak or even a restricted catalytic converter! A severe exhaust restriction will reduce intake vacuum and airflow causing the sensor to read hotter than normal (because it is picking up heat from the engine).


A faulty air temperature sensor may or may not set a code and turn on the Check Engine light. If the sensor circuit is open or shorted, it will usually set a code. But if it is only reading high or low, or is sluggish due to old age or contamination, it usually will not set a code.

A quick way to check the air temperature sensor is to use a scan tool to compare the air temperature reading to the coolant temperature reading once the engine is warm. A good air temperature sensor will usually read a few degrees cooler

than the coolant sensor.

The sensor’s resistance can also be checked with an ohmmeter.

Remove the sensor, then connect the two leads on the ohmmeter to the two pins in or on the sensor’s wiring connector plug to measure the sensor’s resistance. Measure the sensor’s resistance when it is cold. Then blow hot air at the tip of the sensor with a blow drier (never use a propane torch!) and measure the resistance again. Look for a change in the resistance reading as the sensor warms up.

No change in the sensor’s resistance reading as it heats up would tell you the sensor is bad and needs to be replaced. The sensor reading should gradually decrease if the sensor is a negative thermistor, or gradully increase if it is a positive thermistor. If the reading suddenly goes open (infinite resistance) or shorts out (little or no resistance), you have a bad sensor.

To be really accurate, you should look up the resistance specifications for the air temperature sensor, then measure the sensor’s resistance at low, mid-range and high temperatures to see if it matches the specifications. A sensor that reads within the specified range when cold, may go out of range at higher temperature, or vice versa. Such a sensor would not be accurate and should be replaced.

The resistance and/or voltage test specifications for the air temperature sensor on your engine can be found in a service manual, or by subscribing to the service information on the   vehicle manufacturers service informaTION WEBSITE or AlldataDIY.


The air temperature sensor is a solid state device so no adjustment is possible. However, it may be possible to clean a dirty sensor so that it functions normally once again provided it is still in good working condition. Contaminants can be removed from the tip of the sensor by (1) removing the sensor from the intake manifold, then (2) spraying the sensor tip with electronics cleaner. For sensors that are mounted inside a MAF sensor, the wire sensing element can also be sprayed with aerosol electronics cleaner. Do not use any other type of cleaner as it may damage the plastic housing or leave behind a chemical residue that may cause problems down the road.

If a sensor is not reading within specifications or has failed, replace it. Fortunately, most air temperature are not very expensive (typically less than $30). Dealers always charge more than aftermarket auto parts stores, so shop around and compare prices before you buy. Labor to change an air temperature sensor is usually minimal, unless the sensor is buried under a lot of other stuff that has to be removed.

When replacing the air temperature sensor, be careful not to overtighten it as this may damage the sensor housing, or the threads in a plastic intake manifold.