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This paper presents the effects of introducing hydrogen with gasoline on the engine performance like power, torque and efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine. Hydrogen is found to be one of the important energy substitutes of the future era. Hydrogen as a renewable energy source provides the potential for a sustainable development, particularly in the automotive and energy storing sector. Hydrogen driven vehicles reduce both local as well as global emissions. By changing the amount of hydrogen percentage with gasoline, the data has been recorded and analyzed to achieve the economical blend percentage of hydrogen and gasoline to obtain the best performance of the SI engine.
Hydrogen is the fuel of the future. It is an energy carrier that can be used in internal combustion (IC) engines producing no greenhouse gas emissions virtually when combusted with oxygen. The only emission is water vapor. It is a carbon-free energy carrier, and likely to play an important role in a world with severe constraints on greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen has extremely wide ignition limits. This allows a spark ignition engine to operate on hydrogen with very little throttling. Stoichiometric hydrogen air mixture burns seven times as fast as the corresponding gasoline air mixture. This gives great advantage in IC engines, leading to higher engine speeds and greater thermal efficiency (Ganeshan, 2007). The potential of using hydrogen for small horsepower SI engines was evaluated and compared with compressed natural gas (CNG). Another study dealt on certain drawbacks of hydrogen fuelled SI engines, such as high NOx emission and small power output to determine the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuelled SI engines. The design features and the current operational limitations associated with the hydrogen fuelled SI engines were reviewed (Karim, 2000). The onset of knock in hydrogen fuelled SI engine applications was investigated (Li and Karim, 2004). Several problems of the injectors (leakage, unequal response time-opening delay and poor durability) as available then, have mostly been solved nowadays due to the worldwide increased research on gaseous injection systems (natural gas, LPG, etc). To run a hydrogen engine, the mixture formation of air and hydrogen need not to be controlled precisely (Das, 1990). Consequently, simple systems such as an external mixture system with a gas carburetor can be used for the fuel supply. This system is firstly implemented on the tested engine. However, combustion process can be controlled completely only with an injection system and an electronic control unit (electronic management system), as used for all new gasoline engines. Hence, the carburetor is discarded to be replaced by a gas injection system in the inlet manifold, allowing multi-point *Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. 138 J. Pet. Technol. Altern. Fuels Figure 1. Experimental setup. Table 1. Specifications of the test engine. Items Engine (gasoline) Mark 231H Engine type Four stroke, Three cylinder Bore (mm) 66.5 Stroke (mm) 72 Compression ratio 9.2/1 Fuel system Petrol (MPFI) cooling Water cooled Engine working temperature (°C) 120 sequential injection of the gaseous hydrogen fuel in each inlet channel just before the inlet valve. For gaseous fuels, an additional and important advantage is better resistance to backfire (explosion of the air/fuel mixture in the inlet manifold) (Sorusbay and Veziroglu, 1988; Kondo et al.,1996; Lee et al., 1995; Guo et al., 1999). The danger of backfire is eliminated with a sequential timed multipoint injection of hydrogen and the corresponding electronic management system. As a result, the power output of the engine is increased. The optimization of the engine parameters was studied. The ignition timing has a strong influence on efficiency of the engine; it should be regulated adequately as a function of the mixture richness (Verhelst and Sierens, 2001). Moderate engine performance is obtained in hydrogen combustion with a special injector that is equipped with a leak structure and a glow plug (Ikegami et al., 1982). The smoke emission reduces from 4.8 BSN to 0.3 BSN with simultaneous reduction of NOX when using the hydrogen in dual fuel mode. Braking thermal efficiency increases from around 23.59 to 29% with optimized injection starting and duration. The emission such as CO, CO2 and HC is reduced drastically. The NOX emission decreases from 6.14 g/kWh to 3.14 g/kW-h at full load. The reduction is due to efficient combustion resulting from the hydrogen combustion (Sarvanan et al., 2007). The limit of flammability of hydrogen varies from an equivalence ratio of 0.1 to 7.1; hence the engine can be operated with a wide range of air fuel ratio (Yi et al., 2000). Hydrogen fuelled engine efficiency is superior to gasoline engine, especially at small partial loads operating conditions, due to a better combustion process and load qualitative adjustment method. The level of pollutant emissions decreases at the hydrogen fuelling. The exhaust gases do not contain CO2 or lots of polluting substances provided by classic engines such as CO, HC, particles and lead compounds (Negurescu et al., 2012). Tyagi and Ranjan (2013) minimize exhaust pollutant by heating catalytic converter. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of the gasoline-hydrogen blended fuel on engine power and torque, to quantify engine performance and to find the best hydrogen and gasoline fuel blend ratio for SI engines.
Combustion characteristics of a hydrogen fueled SI engine with gasoline-hydrogen blends under seven different ignition timings, 70% wide open throttle(WOT) and lean mixture condition were investigated, and the important results were drawn. The power output of the engine is increased without danger of backfire, with a timed multiport fuel injection system of hydrogen and the corresponding electronic management system. The optimization of the engine parameters were discussed in terms of power output, brake mean effective pressure, torque output and effective thermal efficiency. The injection of hydrogen at the beginning of the compression stroke has shown smooth engine running at stoichiometric air fuel ratio without abnormal burning. The advantage of lean mixtures to operate at low load conditions without a throttle valve is found to be valid. For specific ignition timing, the brake mean effective pressure and the effective thermal efficiency increased while the combustion durations decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in gasoline hydrogen blend. There is a significant influence of Ignition timing on engine performance and combustion. With the decrease in time intervals from the ending of fuel injection to the ignition start, brake mean effective pressure and effective thermal efficiency increased
Das LM (1990). Fuel induction techniques for a hydrogen operated engine. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 15:823-42. Ganeshan V (2007). Internal Combustion engines: third edition, Tata McGraw-hill, P. 212. Guo LS, Lu HB, Li JD (1999). A hydrogen injection system with solenoid valves for a four-cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. 24:377-382.Tags: hydrogen, hydrogen and engine performance, hydrogen and fuel blend