performance of diesel engine using HHO gas

Performance of diesel engine using HHO gas

https://www.academia.edu/3990947/performance_of_diesel_engine_using_HHO_gas_brown_gas_?email_work_card=view-paper

 
INTRODUCTION
 
General
Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world’s energy demand today, are being depleted rapidly. Also, their combustion products are causing global problems, 
such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment, and eventually, for the total life on our  planet.
 
 Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to all of these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system with the clean hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, and little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (solar, wind, etc.) sources, would result in a permanent energy system which would never have to be changed .
 
Fossil fuels possess very useful properties not shared by non-conventional energy sources that have made them popular during the last century. Unfortunately, fossil fuels are no t renewable. In addition, the pollutants emitted by fossil energy systems (e.g. CO, CO2,CnHm, SOx,  NOx, radioactivity, heavy metals, ashes, etc.) are greater and more damaging than those that might be produced by a renewable based hydrogen energy system (Winter CJ.1987).
 
Since the oil crisis of 1973, considerable progress has been made in the search for alternative energy sources. A long term goal of energy research has been the seek for a method to produce hydrogen fuel economically by splitting water using sunlight as the primary energy source. 
Much fundamental research remains to be done. Lowering of worldwide CO emission to reduce the risk of climate change (greenhouse effect) requires a major restructuring of the energy system. The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is a long term option to reduce CO emissions. 
 
However, at the present time, hydrogen is not competitive with other energy carriers. Global utilization of fossil fuels for energy needs is rapidly resulting in critical environmental problems throughout the world. 
 
Energy, economic and political crises, as well as the health of humans, animals and plant life, are all critical concerns.
There is an urgent need of implementing the hydrogen technology. A worldwide conversion from fossil fuels to hydrogen would eliminate many of the problems and their consequences. The production of hydrogen from non-polluting sources is the ideal way. Solar hydrogen is a clean energy carrier. Hydrogen obtained from solar energy is ecologically responsible along its entire energy conversion chain. Energy stored in hydrogen would be available at any time and at any place on Earth, regardless of when or where the solar irradiance, the hydropower, or other renewable sources such as biomass, ocean energy or wind energy was converted. Solar hydrogen is a clean energy carrier. It makes solar energy as storable and transportable as oil and natural gas are by nature, but with the burden of their negative environmental impact. 
 
Solar hydrogen combines the advantages of hydrocarbons (storability and transportability) with the advantages of solar energy(ecological acceptability, renewability and low risk). Solar hydrogen has no need for the carbon atom, which makes the hydrocarbons almost infinitely storable at room temperatures, but is also the reason for their negative ecological impact.  Technology developments have created several challengers to the gasoline powered,   internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. Short of some wonderful new technology emerging, the evolving gasoline fueled ICE will continue to be the choice of consumers and automakers. 
 
Even with regulatory pressure, it is doubtful that any technology would displace the gasoline fueled ICE at least not by 2020 or 2030. Perhaps, the only market signal that would make anew technology more attractive would be a large increase in gasoline prices. For example, $3 per litre gasoline would encourage people to buy diesel or ethanol powered vehicles, perhaps in conjunction with a hybrid-electric technology. At $1.50 per litre, these alternatives have a tiny market share. The search for new technologies and fuels is driven by regulators, not the marketplace. Hydrogen has long been recognized as a fuel having some unique and highly desirable properties, for application as a fuel in engines. It is the only fuel that can be produced entirely from the plentiful renewable resource water, though through the expenditure of relatively much energy. Its combustion in oxygen produces uniquely only water but in air it also produces some oxides of nitrogen.
 
These features make hydrogen an excellent fuel to potentially meet the ever increasingly strict environmental controls of exhaust emissions from combustion devices, including the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.  The use of hydrogen as an engine fuel has been attempted on very limited basis with varying degrees of success by numerous investigators over many decades, and much information about their findings is available in the open literature. However, these reported performance data do not display consistent agreement between various investigators. There is also a tendency to focus on results obtained in specific engines and over narrowly changed operating conditions. Moreover, the increasingly greater emphasis being placed on the nature of emissions and efficiency considerations often makes much of the very early work fragmentary and mainly of historical value.
 
Obviously, there is a need to be aware of what has been achieved in this field while focusing both on the attractive features as well as the potential limitations and associated drawbacks that need to be overcome for hydrogen to become a widely accepted and used fuel for engine applications. Also, there is a need to indicate practical steps for operating and design measures to be developed and incorporated for hydrogen to achieve its full potential as an attractive and superior engine fuel.  A diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. This is in contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline),which uses a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by German inventor Rudolf Diesel in 1893.The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external combustion engine due to its very high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel engines (as used in ships and other applications where overall engine weight is relatively unimportant) can have a thermal efficiency that exceeds 50%.
 
Diesel engines are manufactured in two-stroke and four-stroke versions. They were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy equipment and electric generating plants followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few   automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in these increased. As of 2007, about 50% of all new car sales in Europe are diesel.  The world’s largest diesel engine is currently a Wärtsilä-SulzerRTA96-C Common Rail marine diesel of about 84,420 kW.  The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition) rather than spark plug. In the true diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 resulting in 40-bar (4.0 MPa;580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.4 MPa) (about200 psi) in the petrol engine. This high compression heats the air to550 °C (1,022 °F). At about the top of the compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a (typically steroidal)void in the top of the piston oar  pre-chamber depending upon the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporize from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporization causes a delay period during ignition and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft. As well as the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high compression ratio greatly increases the engine’s efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a spark-ignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not an issue and compression ratios are much higher.

 

Sunday, November 28, 2021

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